## Description

Problem 1. Naive Bayes Text Classification (25 Points) Working with data can

often be messy and frustrating, especially when you are learning a language. The following

is designed to be an introduction to working with real world data. You will implement an

authorship attribution algorithm for the Federalist dataset using a Naive Bayes classifier. This dataset contains historically important papers written by two founding American

politicians (Hamilton and Madison), and your task will be to classify the author from the

text. The authorship of these papers has been a subject of interesting historical debate, so

this use of Naive Bayes is meaningful. Please note that the vast majority of the code has

been supplied for you (inline and in hw03.R); your code should only involve a few commands

per part, where a number of those commands will call the functions we supply.

a. Step 1 (5 points)

Download the Federalist Paper documents from the course website. Place them in

your working directory for R. First we must preprocess the data to 1) remove non-letter

characters, 2)remove stopwords, and 3)stem words. Stopwords are short functional words,

such as in, is, the. Stemming involves trimming inflected words to their stem, such as

reducing running to run.

##########################################

# This code uses tm to preprocess the papers into a format useful for NB

preprocess.directory = function(dirname){

# the directory must have all the relevant text files

ds = DirSource(dirname)

# Corpus will make a tm document corpus from this directory

fp = Corpus( ds )

# inspect to verify

# inspect(fp[1])

# another useful command

# identical(fp[[1]], fp[[“Federalist01.txt”]])

# now let us iterate through and clean this up using tm functionality

for (i in 1:length(fp)){

# make all words lower case

fp[i] = tm_map( fp[i] , tolower);

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# remove all punctuation

fp[i] = tm_map( fp[i] , removePunctuation);

# remove stopwords like the, a, and so on.

fp[i] = tm_map( fp[i], removeWords, stopwords(“english”));

# remove stems like suffixes

fp[i] = tm_map( fp[i], stemDocument)

# remove extra whitespace

fp[i] = tm_map( fp[i], stripWhitespace)

}

# now write the corpus out to the files for our future use.

# MAKE SURE THE _CLEAN DIRECTORY EXISTS

writeCorpus( fp , sprintf(’%s_clean’,dirname) )

}

##########################################

The above code creates a reusable function in R, which takes the input argument dirname.

Use functions when you need to repeatedly use a bit of code. In this case, we will be

reading in data from four different directories. Your task is to run this code on each

of the four directories: fp hamilton train, fp hamilton test, fp madison train,

fp madison test. Look at the files before (namely, in the original directory) and after (namely, in the ‘ clean’ directory) you have used the above function.

Your submitted code for problem 1 should, for part a, include this function with source(‘hw03.R’),

after which you should call the above function on each of the four directories. The code

should be very easy once you understand the above steps.

Please note that the above function uses the package tm, which has much of the functionality below. However, for instructive purposes, we will implement the remaining functions

manually. Be sure you install tm correctly.

b. Step 2 (5 points)

We are next going to use a function to load each of the Federalist Papers from their

corresponding directory into your workspace:

##########################################

# To read in data from the directories:

# Partially based on code from C. Shalizi

read.directory <- function(dirname) {
# Store the infiles in a list
infiles = list();
# Get a list of filenames in the directory
filenames = dir(dirname,full.names=TRUE);
for (i in 1:length(filenames)){
infiles[[i]] = scan(filenames[i],what="",quiet=TRUE);
}
return(infiles)
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}
##########################################
This code creates a list of input files, which here are each federalist paper, and which we
will refer to as infiles. Lists store objects with an ordering. In this case, the order is the
dictated by the position in the directory. The code is structured as follows:
• infiles = list() instantiates the variable infile as a list, albeit with no entries
currently.
• filenames = dir(dirname,full.names=TRUE) creates a vector of strings, populated by the names of the files in directory dirname. The option full.names=TRUE
means that the path directory is prepended onto the file name to give a path; if this
is set to FALSE, only the file names are given.
• for (i in 1:length(filenames)){ loops through all of the file names.
• infiles[[i]] = scan(filenames[i],what="",quiet=TRUE) fills list element i with
a vector (or list) of input values. Here what="" means that all fields will be read
as strings. The default separator is white space; this can be changed through the
sep argument. The argument quiet = TRUE keeps scan from displaying statistics
about the imported document, which will fill up a command screen when hundreds
of documents are read. The net result of this command is that element i of infile
is filled by a vector of strings, with each string representing a word.
• return(infiles) returns the object infiles when the function read.directory(dirname)
is called.
Your code should now read in all four infile directories (the cleaned directories that you
created in the previous part) into the following variable names:
hamilton.train
hamilton.test
madison.train
madison.test
c. Step 3 (5 points)
We are next going to use all of the files (training and testing for both authors) to make
a dictionary, or a list of all the words used. We have again supplied the key function:
##########################################
# Make dictionary sorted by number of times a word appears in corpus
# (useful for using commonly appearing words as factors)
# NOTE: Use the *entire* corpus: training, testing, spam and ham
make.sorted.dictionary.df <- function(infiles){
# This returns a dataframe that is sorted by the number of times
# a word appears
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# List of vectors to one big vetor
dictionary.full <- unlist(infiles)
# Tabulates the full dictionary
tabulate.dic <- tabulate(factor(dictionary.full))
# Find unique values
dictionary <- unique(dictionary.full)
# Sort them alphabetically
dictionary <- sort(dictionary)
dictionary.df <- data.frame(word = dictionary, count = tabulate.dic)
sort.dictionary.df <- dictionary.df[order(dictionary.df$count,decreasing=TRUE),];
return(sort.dictionary.df)
}
##########################################
The function make.sorted.dictionary.df(infiles) takes the list infiles generated
by read.directory() and creates a data frame that holds 1) the list of unique words,
and 2) the number of times each appears in the corpus, which are sorted in descending
order based on frequency. We want the sorted list so that we can easily access the most
used words. The code is structured as follows:
• dictionary.full <- unlist(infiles) takes the list infiles and converts it into
a very long vector, dictionary.full.
• tabulate.dic <- tabulate(factor(dictionary.full)) makes a vector of counts
for each word that appears in dictionary.full. The argument
factor(dictionary.full) tells the tabulate function that it is to bin data according
to the enumerated categories for dictionary.full.
• dictionary <- unique(dictionary.full) returns a vector of unique words in
dictionary.full.
• dictionary <- sort(dictionary) sorts the vector dictionary from a to z; this is
necessary because factor(dictionary.full) is a sorted list of words in dictionary.full.
• dictionary.df <- data.frame(word = dictionary, count = tabulate.dic) creates a new data frame, dictionary.df, with two categories, word and count. The
word category is populated by the alphabetized dictionary of factors, the count
category is populated by the counts for the alphabetized words.
• sort.dictionary.df <- dictionary.df[order(dictionary.df$count,decreasing=TRUE),]
reorders the elements of dictionary.df to be sorted in descending order according
to the count values. order(dictionary.df$count,decreasing=TRUE) returns an
index ordering when the count values are sorted in a descending manner; this is used
to rearrange the rows, but not the columns, of the data frame.
• return(sort.dictionary.df) returns the sorted values as a data frame.
Your task is to now create a dictionary for the full dataset (all test and training across
both authors) by concatenating the individual lists into a single large one for all infiles,
and then using the large list to create a dictionary.
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d. Step 4 (5 points)
We are now going to create counts for each dictionary word in all documents and place
them in a document (rows) by word (columns) matrix. The following code will be used:
##########################################
# Make a document-term matrix, which counts the number of times each
# dictionary element is used in a document
make.document.term.matrix <- function(infiles,dictionary){
# This takes the text and dictionary objects from above and outputs a
# document term matrix
num.infiles <- length(infiles);
num.words <- length(dictionary);
# Instantiate a matrix where rows are documents and columns are words
dtm <- mat.or.vec(num.infiles,num.words); # A matrix filled with zeros
for (i in 1:num.infiles){
num.words.infile <- length(infiles[[i]]);
infile.temp <- infiles[[i]];
for (j in 1:num.words.infile){
ind <- which(dictionary == infile.temp[j]);
dtm[i,ind] <- dtm[i,ind] + 1;
}
}
return(dtm);
}
##########################################
In many cases, producing a full document-term matrix is a poor idea. It requires a large
amount of storage space for relatively little information. In settings with large corpora or
large dictionaries, it is often best to store the data in the form of tokens that simply denote
document number, word number in the dictionary, and count for that word-document
combination. Only counts of at least 1 are stored, yielding something like this:
document word count
3 1 2
3 5 1
3 11 2
3 12 2
... ... ...
However, matrix representation greatly simplifies the coding required for implementing a
naive Bayes classifier. The function is structured as follows:
• num.infiles <- length(infiles) calculates the number of infiles by computing
the length of the list.
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• num.words <- length(dictionary) calculates the length of the dictionary.
• dtm <- mat.or.vec(num.infiles,num.words) instantiates a matrix with num.infiles
rows and num.words columns that is filled with zeros. Note that mat.or.vec(num.infiles)
would instantiate a vector with num.infiles entries that is filled with zeros.
• for (i in 1:num.infiles){ loops through each of the infiles.
• num.words.infile <- length(infiles[[i]]) calculates the number of words in
infile i.
• infile.temp <- infiles[[i]] temporarily stores the vector infile i in infile.temp.
• for (j in 1:num.words.infile){ loops through each of the words in infile i.
• ind <- which(dictionary == infile.temp[j]) stores the dictionary index equal
to the jth word of infile i.
• dtm[i,ind] <- dtm[i,ind] + 1 adds a count of 1 to to the observation matrix for
word ind in infile i.
• return(dtm) returns the document-term matrix.
Your taks is to create a document term matrix for each group of papers. Since we are
looping over a large space in R, this may take a few minutes to run. Make the following:
dtm.hamilton.train
dtm.hamilton.test
dtm.madison.train
dtm.madison.test
e. Step 5 (5 points)
This exercise culminates in building a Naive Bayes classifier. All of your data is now in
matrix form. We are now going to use it to compute naive Bayes probabilities. Computationally, we may ignore the normalizer p(x
test) can be ignored since we only need to
determine which class has a higher likelihood. A test document is declared to be authored
by Hamilton (y = 1) if
p(y = 1)
nYtest
j=1
p(Xj = x
test
j
| y = 1) ≥ p(y = 0)
nYtest
j=1
p(Xj = x
test
j
| y = 0),
and Madison (y = 0) otherwise. Therefore, we only need to estimate the probabilities
p(y = 1), p(y = 0), p(xj = k | y = 1) for k = 1, . . . , |D|, and p(xj = k | y = 0) for
k = 1, . . . , |D|.
When computing probabilities defined by products, it is more convenient to work in log
probabilities. Consider a dictionary with two words, each with equal probability given
that the document is by Hamilton, and a test document with 100 words. Then,
p(y = 1 | x
test) = 1
2
×
Y
100
j=1
1
2
=
1
2
101
≈ 3.9 × 10−31
.
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While best case for a small document, this is way beyond machine precision. If we compute
the log probability,
log
p(y = 1 | x
test)
= log
1
2
101!
= −101 × log(2) ≈ −70.01.
This can easily be stored within machine precision. Even when computing a vector of
probabilities, it is often a good idea work in log probabilities. Note that programs like R
or Matlab use base e.
To compute a vector of log probabilities from a document term matrix with µ phantom
examples, use the following function:
##########################################
make.log.pvec <- function(dtm,mu){
# Sum up the number of instances per word
pvec.no.mu <- colSums(dtm)
# Sum up number of words
n.words <- sum(pvec.no.mu)
# Get dictionary size
dic.len <- length(pvec.no.mu)
# Incorporate mu and normalize
log.pvec <- log(pvec.no.mu + mu) - log(mu*dic.len + n.words)
return(log.pvec)
}
##########################################
The following commands were introduced in this code:
• sum(pvec.no.mu) sums over all values in the vector pvec.no.mu.
• colSums(dtm) sums over the rows of the matrix dtm, producing a vector with the
number of elements equal to the number of columns in dtm.
• pvec.no.mu + mu adds the scalar value mu to all elements of the vector pvec.no.mu.
• (pvec.no.mu + mu)/(mu*dic.len + n.words) divides all elements of the vector
pvec.no.mu + mu by the scalar value mu*dic.len + n.words.
Your task is to calculate the log probability vectors for all document term matrices. Make
your code compute the following with µ =
1
|D|
, where |D| is the size of the dictionary
(number of words in the dictionary):
logp.hamilton.train
logp.hamilton.test
logp.madison.train
logp.madison.test
Question 2. (25 points) Write a function to assign authorship to a test paper (you don’t
have to explicitly compute log (ˆp(y = ˜y | x
test))):
naive.bayes = function(logp.hamilton.train, logp.madison.train,
log.prior.hamilton, log.prior.madison , dtm.test).
This function takes the log probabilities for the dictionary in a Hamilton-authored document
(logp.hamilton.train), a Madison-authored document (logp.madison.train), the log
priors (log.prior.hamilton, log.prior.madison) and a document term matrix for the
testing corpus. Here you must write the Naive Bayes classifier code as a function.
Question 3. (20 points) Set µ =
1
|D|
as before, use the training sets for training, and
use the testing sets for testing. What percentage of test papers are classified correctly?
Additionally, report the proportion of your: true positives (Hamilton classified as Hamilton
divided by the total amount of testing Hamilton papers), true negatives (Madison classified
as Madison divided by the total amount of testing Madison papers), false positives (Madison
classified as Hamilton divided by the total amount of testing Madison) and false negatives
(Hamilton classified as Madison divided by the total amount of testing Hamilton).
Question 4. (30 points) Naive Bayes has a tunable parameter, µ. We will use 5-fold
cross-validation over the training set to search the parameter set µ = {
1
10
1
|D|
,
1
|D|
, 10 1
|D|
, 100 1
|D|
, 1000 1
|D|
}.
Create three matrices to store proportion correctly classified, proportion of false negatives,
and proportion of false positives. These should be 5 × 5 matrices.
a. (10 points) For each value of µ, estimate the correct classification rate, the false negative
rate and the false positive rate using 5-fold cross-validation. (Assume that you don’t have
access to the testing sets). Summarize your results in three graphs.
b. (5 points) What seems to be the best value for µ? Why?
c. (10 points) For each value of µ, train on the full training set and test on the full testing
set. Summarize the correct classification rate, the false negative rate and the false positive
rate in three graphs. Does your answer from (b) still seem the best value? Why or why
not?
d. (5 points) How close are the rates estimated from cross-validation to the true rates on the
testing set (rates from (c))? Give percentage error. What could account for differences?
Give one way the differences between the cross-validation rate estimates and the rates on
the training sets could be minimized.
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