EE 559 Homework 8 solved


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In this homework assignment, you will use SVM classifiers with different kernels and
datasets. You will use a free SVM software package called LIBSVM provided at Please allow time for dealing with any bugs or
version issues that appear when you first try to use it.
Notes for Matlab users:
1.Download LIBSVM and read the documentation first to learn how to use it. Check
the README file inside the main folder libsvm-3.23 as well as the README file
inside the Matlab folder.
2. If you are using Windows, simply add the windows (not the Matlab) folder from
the LIBSVM folder to your path – no need to run the installation steps.
3.If you are using Unix based systems, navigate to the Matlab folder inside the
LIBSVM folder and run make. (I didn’t check this method since I work on
Windows computers)
4. You can ignore any Matlab warnings regarding the svmtrain function. This
warning concerns Matlab’s own svmtrain (built-in) and not the function provided
Note for Python users:
1. Sklearn’s implementation of SVM is based on LIBSVM. Thus, there’s no need to
download LIBSVM.
We will use 3 different datasets as described below:
# Features #
Linear Separable Has Test Set
1a-c HW8_1 2 2 Yes No
1d-e HW8_2 2 2 No No
2 wine 13 (first 2 features
3 N/A Yes
1. In this problem, you will use the full dataset D for training, and where requested, the
classification accuracy is calculated on the (same) training dataset.
For parts (a)-(c) below, load HW8_1, which is a linearly separable case.
a) Use Linear Kernel and try different values of slack variable parameter C. What
is the meaning of parameter C and how will it impact your classification? Set C
p. 2 of 4
= 1, C = 100, report the accuracy of classification and plot the decision
boundary using plotSVMBoundaries() as provided. Explain your observation.
b) For HW8_1 and C = 100 with Linear Kernel, give the support vectors
numerically and circle them (or clearly identify them in some other way) in your
plot. Provide the weights w0, w1, w2 and the decision boundary equation.
Hint: for how to obtain the weights in MATLAB, see:
FAQ: How could I generate the primal variable w of linear SVM?
Hint: python users can pass the support vectors as a parameter to
plotSVMBoundaries to get a new plot where they show.
c) Extra credit. Continuing from part (b) above, calculate �(�) for each support
vector. Are they on the boundary of the margin (corresponding to �(�) = ±1)?
If not, then conjecture as to why not, and test your conjecture computationally.
For parts (d)-(e) below, load HW8_2, which is not linearly separable.
d) Use Gaussian (RBF) Kernel with default gamma parameter. Set C = 50, 5000.
Report the accuracy of classification and plot the decision boundary using
plotSVMBoundaries() as provided. Explain the linearity or nonlinearity of the
decision boundary, and explain the difference in decision regions for the two
values of C.
e) Use Gaussian Kernel again, but now with default C parameter. Set gamma = 10,
50, 500. Report the accuracy of classification and plot the decision boundary
using plotSVMBoundaries() as provided. Explain the difference in decision
regions for the 3 values of gamma. Is there any overfitting problem?
2. In this problem, you will use cross-validation for model (parameter) selection, in
order to more optimally design an SVM classifier. There is also a separate test set
that you can use.
Note that cross-validation is covered in Lecture 18 (Monday 3/30/2020).
In this problem, you are required to code the cross-validation yourself; although you
may use MATLAB or Python functions to divide the dataset into subsets.
In all parts that ask for cross-validation, use 5-fold cross-validation on the “training
set” (this is the set we called in lecture). Do not use the test set until part (d).
Load wine, a 3 class dataset. In all of the following parts, use only the first two
features in training and testing.
Tip 1: The standard deviation can be estimated by:
p. 3 of 4
or by using available Matlab or Python functions for unbiased sample
standard deviation.
Tip 2: For partitioning functions:
• Matlab: use cv = cvpartition(params) (to have a proper partitioning, be
sure stratified is set to true), and then idx = training(cv, k).
• Python: look for sklearn’s StratifiedKFold
(a) Use Gaussian (RBF) Kernel. Set , C = 1. Report the average crossvalidation accuracy.
(b) In this part you will use cross validation to find the best parameter set (model
First, pick some values from the ranges γ ∈ [10!”, 10″] and C ∈ [10!”, 10″]
(hint: use logspace(); at least 50 points for each parameter are recommended)
Next, initialize a 2D array of size (N#, �$) to store average accuracies on
the validation set; let’s call the array ACC. Also set up another 2D array,
DEV, to store the estimated standard deviation of accuracies on the validation
set. You will use these two array types, repeatedly, below.
Then, for each pair of [γ, C] perform a 5-fold cross validation and store the
average accuracy to the corresponding position in ACC, and similarly the
estimated standard deviation of accuracy in DEV. Perform the partitioning
randomly but stratified. Also, make sure that each run of the training
procedure is initialized (restarted with the new values of all variables) each
(i) Visualize ACC. Turn in your visualization (pseudocolor map, plot, or
other) with your HW.
Tip for MATLAB: you can use imagesc(), mesh() or surf(), whichever
is most illustrative
Tip for Python: you can use imshow() and colorbar() from
(ii) Is there a clear choice for best values of [γ, C] ? If so, report the pair of
chosen values, as well as its mean cross-validation accuracy and
standard deviation. If not, pick one set of values from the candidate
pairs (e.g., the pair with the lowest standard deviation), and give its
mean cross-validation accuracy and standard deviation.
(c) Repeat the cross validation procedure in (b) T=20 times (runs), storing the
resulting arrays ACC(t) and DEV(t) each time. No need to visualize every
σˆ = 1
M −1 pm ( − p)
∑ ⎡

= 1
M −1 pm
2 − p
2 ( ) m=1
∑ ⎡

γ = 1
p. 4 of 4
(i) Report on the 20 chosen pairs of [γ, C].
(ii) Accumulate a single overall average ACC array, and a single overall
DEV array, based on all T=20 runs; that is, you will have one average
accuracy and standard deviation for each pair [γ, C]. Is a pick of the best
values for [γ, C] over the T=20 runs more well-defined or more
reproducible now? Justify your answer. Also, report on the final chosen
best values for [γ, C], as well as its mean cross-validation accuracy and
standard deviation.
(d) Use the full training set to train the final classifier using your best pair of
[γ, C] from (c) (ii) above. Then use the test set to estimate the accuracy of
your final classifier on unknowns. Is this estimate within approximately 1
standard deviation of your mean cross-validation accuracy from (c) (ii)? If
not, try to explain why.