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CSE 232 Programming Project 04 solved

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Assignment Overview
This assignment will give you more with functions and introduce the use of the string data type.
Background
You probably know about programs like zip. The basic idea of zip is to take a file and compress it, that
is change the representation of the file such that it occupies less space without losing any information
in the process. zip and its relatives are known as a kind of lossless compression. There are other kinds
of compression, called lossy compression, that will sacrifice full accuracy for better compression of the
file. We want to look at a simple compression algorithm called run-length encoding.
Run-length encoding
Run-length encoding (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Run-length_encoding ) is a fairly simple kind
of compression. In its simplest form, which we are looking at here, you take a sequence of repeated,
single characters and turn those characters into a representation that takes less space. Taking less
space, using fewer characters than the original, is the goal here so it is important to keep that in mind.
Here’s an example of how we would like to run-length encode a string:
aaaaaabbbbbccccdddeef  :ca:bb:acdddeef
The ratio of compression is 21 to 15 or a reduction to15/21 (71.4%) of its original size.
How do we interpret the above encoding? Let’s discuss.
Our encoding
Let’s look at one piece of our encoding:
aaaaaa  :ca
Every encoding uses three characters. The first is a marker character to indicate that what follows was
encoded. The second is a count of how many characters there are (more on that in a moment), and the
third is the character that is repeated.
So how does the character ‘c’ represent 6 (the number of a’s being encoded). Well, we could use
decimal integers (something like :6a) but as soon as there are more than 9 characters in a sequence the
encoding requires an extra character (something like :22a for a sequence of 22 a’s). We are trying to be
as conservative as possible to get the best compression, so we develop a scheme to represent decimal
values as individual characters. Here is what we will use: character above, integer value below:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
First, why start at 4? Since an encoding uses three characters, there is no point in encoding any
sequence that is 3 characters or less. Thus we pass those characters through without encoding. Since
the first count we would encode is 4 characters, we use ‘a’ to represent a count of 4. Second, why stop
at 55/capital Z. We could indeed go further and use all kinds of weird characters (like ~, $, *, etc.) to
represent a count which would get us into the 100’s, but we thought 4-55 is a good enough range for
this project.
Furthermore, since we will not encode a sequence of 3 or less, we just pass them through unencoded.
For sequences of 2 or less it is actually more efficient since 3 characters are required for an encoding.
Going back then:
aaaaaabbbbbccccdddeef  :ca:bb:acdddeef
Means 6 a’s, followed by 5 b’s, followed by 4 c’s, followed by 3 d’s (no encoding), followed by 2 e’s
(no encoding) followed by 1 f (no encoding)
Project Description / Specification
Warning
Again, in this project as in the last we provide exactly our function specifications: the function name,
its return type, its arguments and each argument’s type. We will often provide you with a main
program to include in your file (or a separate main program file when we start to develop mult-file
programs). Do not change the function declarations!
function: main:
We provide in the Mimir project a starter file proj04.cpp without the functions. We provide this as a
test rig, the kind you should be writing eventually for yourself. When run the main test each function
individually based on input. Place your function code in the file marked by a comment. Feel free to
experiment and test as you like, but remember to put the main code back to its original setup when you
turn the code in. The TAs will be looking to see that the main you turn in is unchanged.
function encode_sequence:
 two arguments:
o string consisting of all the same chars (no error checking)
o char which is used to indicate an encoding
 return is a string
Encodes the provided string into a run-length encoding for the string of the same characters.
encode_sequence(“aaaaaaaaaa”, ‘+’)  “+ga”
function: encode:
 two arguments:
o string to encode
o char which is used to indicate an encoding
 return is a string
Does the run-length encoding for the entire string. Should use encode_sequence.
encode(“aaaaaaaaaattttttddeef”, ‘:’)  :ga:ctddeef
function: decode_sequence:
 two arguments
o string consisting of a three character encode sequence(no error checking)
o char which is used to indicate an encoding
 return is string
Converts the encode sequence into its original form.
decode_sequence(“+ga”, ‘+’)  “aaaaaaaaaa”
function: decode:
 two arguments:
o string to decode
o char which is used to indicate an encoding
 return is string
Does the run-length decoding for the entire string. Should use decode_sequence.
function: reduction:
 two arguments (in this order):
o original string
o the run-length encoded string
 returns double
Returns the amount of reduction (the ratio of sizes, encoded to original).
reduction(“aaaaaaaaaa”, “+ga”)  0.30
Deliverables
proj04/proj04.cpp — your source code solution (remember to include your section, the date,
project number and comments in this file).
1) Be sure to use “proj04.cpp” for the file name and to have it in a directory called proj04
2) Electronically submit a copy of the file to Mimir for testing
Discussion/Hints