# CS2810 OOAIA: A4 solved

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## Description

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Create classes in C++ for representing Complex, Rational and Natural numbers. These classes should
support the following functionality:
2. Rational: add, subtract, multiply, reduce
3. Natural: check prime, calculate inverse modulo prime p
Create an inheritance structure between the classes to reuse code. The inheritance can be multilevel,
Complex —> Rational —> Natural, meaning that Rational inherits from base class Complex and
Natural inherits from Rational.
The reduce operation means, given a fraction p/q, obtain p’/q’, where GCD(p’, q’) = 1, or p’ and q’ are
coprime. Eg: reduce(6 / 9) = 2 / 3. In modulo n arithmetic, if the inverse of num is inv_num,then:
(num * inv_num) % n = 1. Refer to Modular arithmetic rules and Fermat’s Little Theorem for
theory related to modular arithmetic and calculation of inverse modulo p.
Some useful links for number-theoretic algorithms: Euclid’s GCD algorithm, Sieve algorithm, Modular
arithmetic rules, Fermat’s Little Theorem, Fast exponentiation
Input Format
For every test case, the first line contains n, the number of operations that follow. Each operation will
be of the form , where number type can be {“complex”,
“rational”, “natural”} and operation type depends on number type. The allowed operations for
complex are {“add”, “sub”, “mult”}, for rational they are {“add”, “sub”, “mult”, “reduce”} and for natural
they are {“isprime”, “inverse”}. This line will be followed by the actual inputs for each operation
Complex numbers in the input are represented as: with both
numbers as double. Rational numbers in input are represented as:
with both numbers as integers.
Arithmetic operations(add, sub, mult) over complex numbers and rationals will be followed by 2 lines
containing 1 number each represented in the above-specified format. The reduce operation on
rationals will be followed by 1 rational number represented as specified above. All operations on natural
numbers are followed by a single number. The prime p with respect to which inverse modulo p should
be evaluated is 1000000007.
Output Format
Print output for each operation in a separate line. Print complex numbers in the same format as the
input. Print both real as well as imaginary parts of the complex number even if any of them is 0. For
rationals, print the double representation of the rational for all operations except reduce. For the
reduce operation over rationals, print 2 integers , with the first
integer being negative if the result is negative. For the isprime operation, print 0/1 if the number is not
prime/ prime respectively and for the inverse mod p print a single natural number.
Constraints
Number of operations: 1 <= n <= 10 5 . For complex numbers: -10 3 <= real, imaginary <= 10 3 , for rationals: -10 4 <= num, denom <= 10 4 , denom != 0, and for natural: 1 <= number <= 10 6 . Sample Testcase Input: 9 complex add —> number type and operation type
1.2 2.3 —> 1st number: 1.2 + 2.3i
2.1 1.3 —> 2nd number: 2.1 + 1.3i
complex sub
1.2 3.1
2.2 1
complex mult
-1 2
2.3 1.2
1 2 —> 1/2
1 3 —> 1/3
rational sub
1 400
1 200
rational mult
1 2
24 6
rational reduce
210 14
natural isprime
101
natural inverse
123456
Output:
3.300 3.600
-1.000 2.100
-4.700 3.400
0.833
-0.003
2.000
15 1
1
78351802
Design Submission Format
For the design submission on Moodle, please submit a .tar.gz file named as your roll number.
Note
All doubles have to be printed with a fixed precision of 3 decimal digits similar to the assignment A3.
Number Display
3.4 3.400
3.1415 3.142
2 2.000
This style of printing can be set by using the following statements before any “cout”. You only need to
write these statements once:
std::cout.precision(3); std::cout << std::fixed;