Operating Systems – 234123 Homework Exercise 1 – Wet solved

$35.00

Description

5/5 - (1 vote)

Your goal in this assignment will be to add new system calls to the kernel’s interface and
to change some existing system calls. While doing so you will gain extra knowledge in
compiling the kernel. Furthermore, in this exercise, we will use VMware to simulate a
virtual machine on which we will compile and run our “modified” Linux. You will submit
only changed source files of the Linux kernel.
Please read the whole document before you start working.
General Description
We want you to dynamically prohibit certain processes from calling some system calls. To
do so, you will add new features to the Linux kernel wherein every process is associated
with a specific restriction level and a restrictions list. Then, you will modify the system_call
routine, that you have learned about, such that a process will be able to invoke only the
system calls that are not restricted by its restrictions list and its restriction level. Finally,
you will create a logging service that records forbidden activities of processes in the OS.
The policy is defined as follows:
● Turning On The Feature: By default, all processes will not be affected by the new
feature.
o You will define a system call which gets the PID of a process, a restriction
level and a restrictions list of [syscall number, syscall restriction threshold]
and turns the feature on for the process with the given PID with respect to
the received restriction level and restrictions list.
o Every process may activate the feature for any other process (including
itself).
You can assume that we will not test your code for essential system
processes (such as idle or “swapper” (PID = 0) and init (PID = 1)).
● Restriction Level/threshold: Every process which the feature has been invoked
for it, is assigned with restiction_level in the range of [0, 2]. Similarly, any system
call in the given restrictions list is associated with a restriction_threshold in the
range of [0,2].
● Effects of the restriction level and restrictions list:
o For each system call in the process restrictions list, if the process has a
restriction_level which is strictly lower than the restriction_threshold of that
system call, then the call should fail and return -1. We define such behavior
as a forbidden activity.
o You should not restrict any other system call.
Page 2 of 12
o For example, (See the system calls specifications below):
int main() {
pid_t pid = getpid(); // getpid system call number is 20
scr r = {20, 2};
sc_restrict(pid, 0, &r, 1);
getpid(); // should fail (return -1), errno == ENOSYS
set_proc_restriction(pid, 2);
getpid(); // should succeed
return 0;
}
● Recording Forbidden Activities: You must define a separate log for each process.
If a process attempts to perform a forbidden activity, then this activity should be
recorded in the log of that process. Specific details on the implementation of the
log are discussed below.
Important Notes:
● If a process has invoked a restricted system call, the system call should fail and
return -1 . In addition, errno should contain ENOSYS.
● Note that this new feature should also work for any future system call we may add
to the OS .
● You are not required to handle any failure that might occur due to incorrect using
in the feature (for example, restricting a process from dying).
● You may assume that we will not restrict system processes (init, swapper ..).
● Advanced Note: for the sake of the home assignment, please ignore handling
processes containing multiple threads. That is, assume tgid=pid for all processes,
and ignore memory sharing issues.
● You may assume a single processor\core system.
Page 3 of 12
Detailed Description
Restrictions list
A restricted process has a restrictions list which consist of system call numbers and their
desired restriction threshold.
For this purpose, we define the following struct that represents an element in the
restrictions list:
typedef struct sys_call_restriction {
int syscall_num;
int restriction_threshold;
} scr;
● syscall_num – stores the system call number for which we would like to set the
restriction
● restriction_threshold – stores the restriction threshold of the system call.
Note that the struct should be of type scr (using typedef). Defining it differently may
cause your code not to pass our tests.
The log records’ description
We would like to record the forbidden activities of a given process.
For this purpose, we define the following struct that represents a forbidden activity log
record:
typedef struct forbidden_activity_info {
int syscall_num;
int syscall_restriction_threshold;
int proc_restriction_level;
int time;
} fai;
● syscall_num – stores the number of the involved system call.
● syscall_restriction_threshold – stores the restriction threshold of the involved
system call.
● proc_restriction_level – stores the involved process restriction level at the time the
forbidden activity occurred. Note that the process’s restriction level might be changed
through time via ad-hoc system calls, as we will discuss below.
● time – stores the clock ticks (the value in jiffies) at which the forbidden activity
occurred
(The clock ticks can be retrieved from a kernel global variable named jiffies).
Page 4 of 12
Note that the struct should be of type fai (using typedef). Defining it differently may
cause your code not to pass our tests.
Important Notes:
● You should define these structs in both kernel and user code (hw1_syscalls.h)
● After logging forbidden activities, even when all the restrictions have been
removed, the log should still be available for reading.
● The log is cyclic and has a predefined size (of 100 records). A record is removed
from the log only if it is the oldest record, the log is full and a new record should be
inserted.
● Once it created, the log will be deleted only on a process totally termination (it
means that one should be able to read the log of a zombie process).
Code wrappers
You are required to implement the following code wrappers and the corresponding
system calls. For example: sc_restrict is a code wrapper and sys_sc_restrict is a system call
(see Recitation 1, from slide 36 onwards).
System call number 243
int sc_restrict (pid_t pid ,int proc_restriction_level, scr* restrictions_list, int
list_size)
Description
Imposes the restrictions for the process with PID=pid with respect to the given
proc_restriciton_level and the restricitions_list. The restriction level of this process should
be set to proc_restriction_level. In addition, from this point on, the log should record (at
most) the last 100 forbidden activities that this process has performed.
● If this method was called more than once than its last invocation takes effect.
● The restrictions list may be empty. In this case, de facto, the process has no
restrictions.
● Use the copy_from_user method in order to copy the content of restrictions_list
from the user memory to the kernel memory.
Parameters
pid The process for whom we would like to set the restrictions
proc_restriction_level The process restriction level. From now on, every invocation of a
system call which is configured in restrictions_list that has a
strictly greater restriction_theshold than proc_restriction_level
Page 5 of 12
should fail and will be recorded as a forbidden activity.
restrictions_list A configuration list in which every item contains a system call
number and its desired restriction_theshold.
Every system call that is not in this list should not be affected.
You may assume that the data within restrictions_list is valid.
list_size The number of elements in restricions_list. You may assume that
this number always match the actual list size.
Return values
● On success: return 0.
● On failure: return -1
o If pid<0 errno should contain ESRCH o If no such process exists errno should contain ESRCH o If proc_restriction_level<0 or proc_restriction_level>2 errno should contain
EINVAL
o If size<0 errno should contain EINVAL o On memory allocation failure errno should contain ENOMEM o On memory copy failure errno should contain ENOMEM o On any other failure errno should contain EINVAL ● If there is more than one error you should return the first one by the above order. System call number 244 int set_proc_restriction (pid_t pid ,int proc_restriction_level) Description Sets a new restriction level for the process with PID=pid. This method only sets a new restriction level regardless of the process’s restrictions list. ● If this method was called in parallel to the sc_restrict method, then the one that was performed last should takes effect. ● If this method was called more than once than its last invocation takes effect. Parameters pid The process for whom we would like to set the restrictions proc_restriction_level The process new restriction level Return values ● On success: return 0. ● On failure: return -1 Page 6 of 12 o If pid<0 errno should contain ESRCH o If no such process exists errno should contain ESRCH o If proc_restriction_level<0 or proc_restriction_level>2 errno should contain
EINVAL
o On any other failure errno should contain EINVAL
● If there is more than one error you should return the first
one by the above order.
System call number 245
int get_process_log(pid_t pid, int size, fai* user_mem)
Description
Returns in user_mem the last size records of the forbidden activities of the process with
PID=pid.
Reading data from the log does not remove or change the log.
● The returned data should be ordered by fai.time (in ascending order)
● You may assume that user_mem has enough space to contain size records.
● If nothing has ever entered the log, consider it as an empty log (this is not
considered as an error).
● Use the copy_to_user method to copy data from kernel memory to user memory.
Parameters
pid The process for whom we would like to set the restrictions
size The number of records we wish to read from the log
user_mem An address in the user space into which the method should write the result
Return values
● On success: return 0
● On failure: return -1
o If pid<0 errno should contain ESRCH o If no such process exists errno should contain ESRCH o If size> actual number of records in the log, errno should contain EINVAL.
o If size<0 errno should contain EINVAL o On memory copy failure errno should contain ENOMEM o On any other failure errno should contain EINVAL ● If there is more than one error you should return the first one by the above order. Page 7 of 12 Assignment Constraints and Grading Policy ● You are not allowed to use syscall functions to implement code wrappers, or to write the code wrappers for your system calls using the macro _syscall1. You should write the code wrappers according to the example of the code wrapper given above. ● The assignment will be graded by auto tests. Write your own tests and be sure that your system is working according to the above specification. ● We are going to check for kernel oops (errors that don’t prevent the kernel from continue running such as NULL dereference in syscall implementation). You should not have any. If there was kernel oops, you can see it in dmesg (dmesg it’s the command that prints the kernel messages, e.g. printk, to the screen). To read it more conveniently use: dmesg | less -S Informative Notes and Technical Details What should you do? Use VMware, like you learned in HW0, in order to make the following changes in the Linux kernel: 1. Make necessary changes in file kernel/fork.c, kernel/exit.c, include/linux/sched.h and arch/i386/kernel/entry.S 2. Put the implementation of your logic and system calls in kernel/hw1_syscalls.c and arch/i386/kernel/restrict.c that you will have to create and add to the kernel. 3. Update the makefiles in those directories to compile your new file too. (Tip: add it to obj-y). 4. Figure out where is the central point in which every system call invocation must go through, and understand how to add your logic there. 5. Make any necessary changes in the kernel code so the new system calls can be used like any other existing Linux system call. Your changes can include modifying any .c, .h or. S (assembly) file that you find necessary. 6. Update more files if needed. 7. Recompile and run the new kernel like you did in the preliminary assignment. 8. Put the wrapper functions in hw1_syscalls.h. Note that hw1_syscalls.h is not part of the kernel, and the user should include it when using your system calls. This also means that you don’t need to recompile the entire kernel when modifying the header. Page 8 of 12 9. Boot with your new Linux and try to compile and run the test program to make sure the new system calls work as expected. 10.Did it all? Good work! Submit your assignment. Submit the following: kernel.tar.gz, submitters.txt and hw1_syscalls.h (see below) Important Notes and Tips ● First, try to understand exactly what your goal is. ● Figure out which data structures will serve you in the easiest and simplest way ● Figure out which new states you have to save and add them to the task_struct (defined in sched.h). ● Figure out in which exact source files you need to place your code and where exactly in each file. ● Do not reinvent the wheel, try to change only what you really understand, and those are probably things related to the subjects you have seen in the recitations. ● Debugging the kernel is not a simple task, use printk to print messages from within the kernel. Whenever possible - write and compile short and simple segments of code and make sure they work before expanding on them (For example, writing a preliminary system call that simply returns a number, and making sure that works, before adding functionality to it) ● The linux developers wrote comments in the code, read them, they might help you understand what's happening. ● Write your own tests. We will check your assignment with our test program ● Linux is case-sensitive. entry.S means entry.S, not Entry.s, Entry.S or entry.s. ● You should use kmalloc and kfree in the kernel in order to allocate and release memory. If kmalloc fails you should return ENOMEM. For the kmalloc function use flag GFP_KERNEL for the memory for kernel use. ● Pay attention that the process descriptor size is limited. Do not add to many new fields. Also, add your fields at the end of the struct because the kernel sometimes uses the offsets of the fields. ● Start working on the assignment as soon as possible. The deadline is final, NO postponements will be given, and a high load on the VMWare machines will not be accepted as an excuse for late submissions ● You can use existing kernel data structures without implementing them. Page 9 of 12 Questions & Answers ● The Q&A for the exercise will take place at a public forum Piazza only. Please DO NOT send questions to the private email addresses of the TAs. ● Critical updates about the HW will be published in pinned notes in the piazza forum. These notes are mandatory and it is your responsibility to be updated. A number of guidelines to use the forum: ● Read previous Q&A carefully before asking the question; repeated questions will probably go without answers ● Be polite, remember that course staff does this as a service for the students ● You’re not allowed to post any kind of solution and/or source code in the forum as a hint for other students; In case you feel that you have to discuss such a matter, please come to the reception hour ● When posting questions regarding hw1, put them in the hw1 folder Late Days ● Please DO NOT send postponement requests to the TA responsible for this assignment. Only the TA in charge can authorize postponements. In case you need a postponement, please fill out the attached form https://goo.gl/forms/R7n5YjsqO8XvR8m03 Page 10 of 12 Submission You should create a zip file (use zip only, not gzip, tar, rar, 7z or anything else) containing the following files: 1) A tarball named kernel.tar.gz containing all the files in the kernel that you created or modified (including any source, assembly or makefile). To create the tarball, run (inside VMWare): cd /usr/src/linux-2.4.18-14custom tar -czf kernel.tar.gz Make sure you don’t forget any file and that you use relative paths in the tar command.
For example, use kernel/sched.c and not /usr/src/linux-2.4.18-
14custom/kernel/sched.c
Test your tarball on a “clean” version of the kernel – to make sure you didn’t forget any
file.
If you missed a file and because of this, the exercise does not work, you will get a 0 and
resubmission will cost 10 points. In case you missed an important file (such as the
file with all your logic) we may not accept it at all. In order to prevent it you should
open the tar on your host machine and see that the files are structured as they
supposed to be in the source directory. It is highly recommended to create another
clean copy of the guest machine and open the tar there and see it behaves as you
expected.
To open the tar:
cd /usr/src/linux-2.4.18-14custom
tar -xzf /kernel.tar.gz
2) A file named submitters.txt which includes the ID, name and email of the
participating students. The following format should be used:
Linus Torvalds linus@gmail.com 234567890
Ken Thompson ken@belllabs.com 345678901
3) Additional files requirements go here
Important Note: Make the outlined zip structure exactly. In particular, the zip should
contain only the X files, without directories.
Page 11 of 12
You can create the zip by running (inside VMware):
zip final.zip kernel.tar.gz submitters.txt other files
The zip should look as follows:
zipfile -+
|
+- kernel.tar.gz
|
+- submitters.txt
|
+- other files
Important Note: when you submit, retain your confirmation code and a copy of the
file(s), in case of technical failure. Your confirmation code is the only valid proof that you
submitted your assignment when you did.
Have a Successful Journey,
The course staff
Page 12 of 12