CSE8803: Big Data Analytics in Healthcare Homework 4 solved

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Patients often exhibit highly complex clinical presentations in the clinic, making it difficult to
determine optimal treatment solutions or understand health risks in any particular patient.
Meanwhile, electronic health record systems and health records provide rich information on aspects of patients such as diagnosis and medication histories. These data can be
leveraged in order to identify patients that are similar to each other via patient similarity algorithms. The insight from patient similarity may be used for applications such as
allocation of resources, determining targeted treatment plans, or constructing cohorts for
predictive modeling studies.
There are several strategies for patient similarity, including graph based algorithms. In
this homework, you will study related concepts and implement simple algorithms to compute
patient similarity. You will be required to implement those algorithms in Spark GraphX using
Prerequisites [0 points]
This homework is primarily about using Spark with Scala. We strongly recommend using
our bootcamp virtual environment setup to prevent compatibility issues. However, since we
use the Scala Build Tool (SBT), you should be fine running it on your local machine. Note
this homework requires Spark 1.3.1 and is not compatible with Spark 2.0 and later. Please
see the build.sbt file for the full list of dependencies and versions.
Begin the homework by downloading the hw4.tar.gz from Canvas, which includes the
skeleton code and test cases.
You should be able to immediately begin compiling and running the code with the following command (from the code/ folder):
sbt / sbt compile run
And you can run the test cases with this command:
sbt / sbt compile test
1 Heterogeneous patient graph [25 points]
Graphical models are one way to represent patient EHR data. Unlike the traditional approaches for data storage, such as relational databases, graphical models can give us insight
into the relations among patients, diagnosis, medications, labs, etc. Not much research has
been done on using graphs in healthcare applications, needless to say, there is no existing
implementation that uses Spark GraphX to construct a patient graph and perform various
analyses using those new big data tools.
Implement code that consumes patient, diagnosis, medication, and lab input extracted
from the MIMIC II database and return a GraphX model. You will use this model in
subsequent steps to perform additional tasks. Your algorithm should be implemented in the
GraphLoader.load function. Please do not modify the function declaration. You
will lose points for doing so.
The following files will be provided for you to construct the graph (ensure that those files
reside in your data directory):
• PATIENT.csv: Each line represents a patient with some demographics, such as gender and age.
• DIAGNOSTIC.csv: Each line represents a diagnosis for a corresponding patient ID.
In addition to the diagnosis and patient ID the file contains other information such as
the date and diagnosis sequence (primary, secondary, etc.).
• MEDICATION.csv: Each line represents a medication order. The name of the
medication is found in one of the columns on this file.
• LAB.csv: Each line represents a lab result. The name of the lab, the units for the
lab, and the value for the lab are found in specific columns on this file.
Important note: every record in the diagnostic, medication and lab CSV files corresponds
to an edge in the graph, representing an event. Therefore, a single patient can have multiple
events related to the same diagnosis, medication or lab causing multiple edges to be created
between the same patient and diagnosis. To simplify the graph, you will only create a single
edge between a patient and diagnosis in the graph using the most recent event information.
The same applies for medications and labs. For example, suppose we have the sample
diagnostic data in the Table 1 below, you will create an edge for the event in the highlighted
row only.
Table 1: Sample diagnostic data
PatientID icd9code encounterID date sequence
3 774.6 2075 211574 1
3 774.6 2099 249345 1
3 774.6 2125 507510 2
. . . . .
Your task is to use the files above to generate a bipartite graph in GraphX containing
patient, diagnosis, medication and lab vertices. You will then create edges that will only
connect patients to diagnosis, medication and lab. Details about each vertex and edge follows:
Patient vertex: a vertex containing patient related information stored in a PatientProperty
class which extends VertexProperty. The PatientProperty class contains the fields:
• patientID
• sex
• dob: date of birth
• dod: date of death
Diagnostic vertex: a vertex containing diagnosis related information stored in a DiagnosticProperty class which extends VertexProperty. The DiagnosticProperty class contains the
follow fields:
• icd9code: the ICD9 diagnosis code
Lab result vertex: a vertex containing lab result information stored in a LabResultProperty
class which extends VertexProperty. The LabResultProperty class contains the fields:
• testName: name associated with the lab result
Medication vertex: a vertex containing medication related information stored in a MedicationProperty class which extends VertexProperty. The MedicationProperty class contains
the fields:
• medicine: medication name
The graph should contain three types of edges: patient-lab, patient-diagnostic and patientmedication. Similar to the vertices, each of those edges also have properties and are defined
as follows:
• Patient-lab edge: an edge containing information linking a patient to a lab result,
which is stored in a PatientLabEdgeProperty class which extends EdgeProperty. The
PatientLabEdgeProperty class contains labResult which is of LabResult class defined in
• Patient-diagnostic edge: an edge containing information linking a patient to a
diagnosis, which is stored in a PatientDiagnosticEdgeProperty class which extends
EdgeProperty. The PatientDiagnosticEdgeProperty class contains diagnostic, which is
a Diagnostic class defined in models.
• Patient-medication edge: an edge containing information linking a patient to a
medication, which is stored in a PatientMedicationEdgeProperty class which extends
EdgeProperty. The PatientMedicationEdgeProperty class contains medication, which
is a Medication class defined in models.
Notice that there are no edges between patients, or between diagnosis, medications and
From this section you are to perform the following tasks:
• Construct patient heterogeneous graph as discussed above.
• All edges in the graph should be bi-directional.
• Make sure for patient vertices you use the patientID as a VertexId and for other
types of vertices generate vertex IDs.
• Please implement your code in GraphLoader.load(). DO NOT change the method
signature and you are allowed to add any other secondary methods that you can call
from these two methods.
2 Compute Jaccard coefficient [15 points]
Jaccard coefficient is one of the simplest approaches for computing similarities among objects. For instance, given two patients each described by a set of diagnosis, medication and
lab results such that Pi = {Dx1, Rx3, Lab6…, } and Pj = {Lab3, Dx2, Rx5…, } the Jaccard
similarity between the two patients is given by
sij =
|Pi ∩ Pj
|Pi ∪ Pj
Two patients are completely similar if sij = 1 and dissimilar if sij = 0.
Using the Jaccard similarity, you are to perform the following tasks:
• Please implement your code in Jaccard.jaccardSimilarityOneVsAll(). DO NOT
change the method signature and you are allowed to add any other secondary methods
that you can call from these two methods. Please do not modify the function
declaration. You will lose points for doing so.
3 Random walk with restart [20 points]
Random walk with restart (RWR) is a simple variation of PageRank. With PageRank, you
start at a graph vertice and move to one of the adjacent vertices at each step. You also have
a random probability where you jump to a random vertice instead of one of the adjacent
vertice. With RWR, you also have a random jump probability (a.k.a reset probability), but
instead of jumping to a random vertice you jump to the vertice you began with.
The RWR algorithm will compute the random walk among all vertices in the graph. If
there are n patients, d diagnosis, m medications and l labs, then the output of RWR is a
vector of k elements, where k = n + d + m + l is the number of vertices in the graph. Refer
to J. Sun, H. Qu, D. Chakrabarti, and C. Faloutsos, Neighborhood formation and anomaly
detection in bipartite graphs, in Fifth IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, 2005,
p. 8. for more details about RWR.
• Implement RWR by completing the RandomWalk.randomWalkOneVsAll() method
in the RandomWalk object. Please implement your RWR on your own. You can refer to the GraphX library but do not directly use the existing function. Your RWR
by default should be able to run for 100 iterations using a reset probability of 0.15
and return only the top 10 similar patients ignoring similarities between medications,
diagnostics, and labs.
4 Power Iteration Clustering [15 points]
Power iteration clustering (PIC) is a scalable and efficient algorithm for clustering vertices
of a graph given pairwise similarties as edge properties. MLlib includes an implementation
of PIC, which takes an RDD of (srcId, dstId, similarity) tuples and outputs a model with
the clustering assignments. The similarities must be nonnegative. PIC assumes that the
similarity measure is symmetric. A pair (srcId, dstId) regardless of the ordering should
appear at most once in the input data. You may use print statements for debugging but
comment any print statements you added before submitting.
• For this question, your task is computing pairwise similarities between all patients.
Please implement your code in Jaccard.jaccardSimilarityAllPatients(). DO NOT
change the method signature and you are allowed to add any other secondary methods
that you can call from this method. In Main.main you will see how this method is
invoked [10 points]
• Please complete PowerIterationClustering.runPIC(). It is just a kind of wrapper
to call Spark’s built-in PIC implementation. You need to pass all pair similarities you
get from the previous question as input for this function. Then, you can pass it though
Spark’s PIC implementation with the proper configuration. Please refer to PIC doc
in spark. Use three clusters and 100 for maximum iterations. You have to return
the clustering result as RDD[(patientID, clusterLabel)] where the type of variables are
patientID: Long and clusterLabel: Int. [5 points]
5 Zeppelin [20 points]
Apache Zeppelin is an web based notebook that enables interactive data analytics (like
Jupyter). Because you can execute your code piecewise interactively, you’re encouraged to
use this at the initial stage of development for fast prototyping and initial data exploration.
Check out the course lab pages for a brief introduction on how to set it up and use it. Please
answer and provide a proper chart for each question by completing the provided JSON file,
zeppelin\bdh hw4 zeppelin.json. Import this notebook file into Zeppelin first.
5.1 Exploratory data analysis of dataset from the Lab
For an easier start, we will read in the dataset that we have been using in the lab thus far:
case.csv and control.csv. Read the provided comments in the Notebook carefully and
complete the following:
• Transform raw data into table [1 point]
• Make a chart for the top 10 case patient with the most payment [2 points]
• Make a chart for the top 10 control patient with the most payment [2 points]
• Make a chart for the number of case and control patients in each event type (DIAG,
DRUG, PROC, etc.) [3 points]
Fill the indicated TODOs in the notebook. Please refer to the example chart below.
Figure 1: Example chart for the first 2 question of Q5.1
Figure 2: Example chart for the 3rd question of Q5.1
5.2 Descriptive Statistics on the raw input data for HW4
In this part, we will use descriptive statistics to understand the data. Specifically, we want
to find out if a particular gender is more susceptible to some common diagnoses. Read in
the patient and diagnostic data and complete the following:
• Load diagnostic data from file [1 point]
• What are the number of male and female patients? Make a chart for it, e.g. pie chart,
bar chart, etc. [2 points]
• Get the top 10 ICD-9 codes in diagnostics (by number of occurrences). For these top
10 codes, show the breakdown by sex. Produce a chart like below (please note that
values and axis labels here are for illustrative purposes only and may be different than
the actual data): [4 points]
Fill in the indicated TODOs in the notebook.
5.3 Random walk with restart
In this part, we will visualize the results of Random walk with restart. If you could not
complete Q3 Random Walk with Restart, please try to use the result from Q2 Jaccard
Coefficient instead. You can manually copy the list of similar patients into Zeppelin Notebook as the easiest way, or you can save your result as a file and load it from Zeppelin if you
would like to. Using the list of similar patients, please complete the following and include
the appropriate charts:
• Make a separate table for similar patients or directly use those in the next problems if
you can [1 point]
• What are the sexes of the top 10 patients most similar to patient 9? [2 points]
• How many are alive and dead? [2 points] (You can use the top 10 similar patient ids
you got for patient 9 and found which one of those 10 are alive or dead. )
You are allowed to choose the most appropriate visualization to answer any of these
6 Submission[5 points]
The folder structure of your submission should match the folder structure listed below or
your code will not be graded. You can display your folder structure using the tree command.
All unrelated files will be discarded during testing. It is your duty to make sure your code
can be compiled with the provided SBT.
< your gtid >– < your gt account > – hw4
| – – build . sbt
| – – project
| | – – build . properties
| \ – – plugins . sbt
| – – src
| \ – – main
| \ – – scala
| \ – – edu
| \ – – gatech
| \ – – cse8803
| |- – clustering
| | \ – – PowerIterationClustering . scala
| |- – graphconstruct
| | \ – – GraphLoader . scala
| |- – ioutils
| | \ – – CSVUtils . scala
| |- – jaccard
| | \ – – Jaccard . scala
| |- – main
| | \ – – Main . scala
| |- – model
| | \ – – models . scala
| \- – randomwalk
| \- – Randomwalk . scala
| – – zeppelin
\ – – bdh_hw4_zeppelin . json
Create a tar archive of the folder above with the following command and submit the tar
tar – czvf < your gtid > – < your gt account > – hw4 . tar . gz \
< your gtid >– < your gt account > – hw4