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1. Introduction
Part of the materials in this instruction notebook are adapted from “Introduction to Machine Learning with
Python” by Andreas C. Mueller and Sarah Guido.
To run the examples in this notebook and to finish your assignment, you need a few Python modules. If you
already have a Python installation set up, you can use pip to install all of these packages:
$ pip install numpy matplotlib ipython jupyter scikit-learn pandas graphviz
In your python code, you will always need to import a subset of the following modules.
In [3]: import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import graphviz
from IPython.display import display
from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
from sklearn.svm import LinearSVC
from sklearn.naive_bayes import GaussianNB
from sklearn.tree import export_graphviz
2. The Breast Cancer Dataset
The first dataset that we use in this notebook is included in scikit-learn, a popular machine learning library for
Python. The dataset is the Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset, which records clinical measurements of breast
cancer tumors. Each tumor is labeled as “benign” (for harmless tumors) or “malignant” (for cancerous tumors),
and the task is to learn to predict whether a tumor is malignant based on the measurements of the tissue.
The data can be loaded using the load_breast_cancer function from scikit-learn:
In [4]: cancer = load_breast_cancer()
print(“cancer.keys(): {}”.format(cancer.keys()))
Datasets that are included in scikit-learn are usually stored as Bunch objects, which contain some information
about the dataset as well as the actual data. All you need to know about Bunch objects is that they behave like
dictionaries, with the added benefit that you can access values using a dot (as in bunch.key instead of
bunch[‘key’]).
The dataset consists of 569 data points, with 30 features each:
In [5]: print(“Shape of cancer data: {}”.format(cancer.data.shape))
Of these 569 data points, 212 are labeled as malignant and 357 as benign:
In [6]: print(“Sample counts per class:\n{}”.format(
{n: v for n, v in zip(cancer.target_names, np.bincount(cancer.targ
et))}))
To get a description of the semantic meaning of each feature, we can have a look at the feature_names
attribute:
In [7]: print(“Feature names:\n{}”.format(cancer.feature_names))
Let’s print out the names of the features (attributes) and the values in the target (class attribute), and the first 3
instances in the dataset.
cancer.keys(): dict_keys([‘data’, ‘target’, ‘target_names’, ‘DESCR’, ‘f
eature_names’])
Shape of cancer data: (569, 30)
Sample counts per class:
{‘malignant’: 212, ‘benign’: 357}
Feature names:
[‘mean radius’ ‘mean texture’ ‘mean perimeter’ ‘mean area’
‘mean smoothness’ ‘mean compactness’ ‘mean concavity’
‘mean concave points’ ‘mean symmetry’ ‘mean fractal dimension’
‘radius error’ ‘texture error’ ‘perimeter error’ ‘area error’
‘smoothness error’ ‘compactness error’ ‘concavity error’
‘concave points error’ ‘symmetry error’ ‘fractal dimension error’
‘worst radius’ ‘worst texture’ ‘worst perimeter’ ‘worst area’
‘worst smoothness’ ‘worst compactness’ ‘worst concavity’
‘worst concave points’ ‘worst symmetry’ ‘worst fractal dimension’]
In [8]: print(cancer.feature_names,cancer.target_names)
for i in range(0,3):
print(cancer.data[i], cancer.target[i])
You can find out more about the data by reading cancer.DESCR if you are interested.
3. k-Nearest Neighbor
k-Neighbors Classification
Now let’s look at how we can apply the k-nearest neighbors algorithm using scikit-learn. First, we split our data
into a training and a test set so we can evaluate generalization performance:
In [9]: train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=0)
[‘mean radius’ ‘mean texture’ ‘mean perimeter’ ‘mean area’
‘mean smoothness’ ‘mean compactness’ ‘mean concavity’
‘mean concave points’ ‘mean symmetry’ ‘mean fractal dimension’
‘radius error’ ‘texture error’ ‘perimeter error’ ‘area error’
‘smoothness error’ ‘compactness error’ ‘concavity error’
‘concave points error’ ‘symmetry error’ ‘fractal dimension error’
‘worst radius’ ‘worst texture’ ‘worst perimeter’ ‘worst area’
‘worst smoothness’ ‘worst compactness’ ‘worst concavity’
‘worst concave points’ ‘worst symmetry’ ‘worst fractal dimension’] [‘m
alignant’ ‘benign’]
[ 1.79900000e+01 1.03800000e+01 1.22800000e+02 1.00100000e+03
1.18400000e-01 2.77600000e-01 3.00100000e-01 1.47100000e-01
2.41900000e-01 7.87100000e-02 1.09500000e+00 9.05300000e-01
8.58900000e+00 1.53400000e+02 6.39900000e-03 4.90400000e-02
5.37300000e-02 1.58700000e-02 3.00300000e-02 6.19300000e-03
2.53800000e+01 1.73300000e+01 1.84600000e+02 2.01900000e+03
1.62200000e-01 6.65600000e-01 7.11900000e-01 2.65400000e-01
4.60100000e-01 1.18900000e-01] 0
[ 2.05700000e+01 1.77700000e+01 1.32900000e+02 1.32600000e+03
8.47400000e-02 7.86400000e-02 8.69000000e-02 7.01700000e-02
1.81200000e-01 5.66700000e-02 5.43500000e-01 7.33900000e-01
3.39800000e+00 7.40800000e+01 5.22500000e-03 1.30800000e-02
1.86000000e-02 1.34000000e-02 1.38900000e-02 3.53200000e-03
2.49900000e+01 2.34100000e+01 1.58800000e+02 1.95600000e+03
1.23800000e-01 1.86600000e-01 2.41600000e-01 1.86000000e-01
2.75000000e-01 8.90200000e-02] 0
[ 1.96900000e+01 2.12500000e+01 1.30000000e+02 1.20300000e+03
1.09600000e-01 1.59900000e-01 1.97400000e-01 1.27900000e-01
2.06900000e-01 5.99900000e-02 7.45600000e-01 7.86900000e-01
4.58500000e+00 9.40300000e+01 6.15000000e-03 4.00600000e-02
3.83200000e-02 2.05800000e-02 2.25000000e-02 4.57100000e-03
2.35700000e+01 2.55300000e+01 1.52500000e+02 1.70900000e+03
1.44400000e-01 4.24500000e-01 4.50400000e-01 2.43000000e-01
3.61300000e-01 8.75800000e-02] 0
Note that this function randomly partitions the dataset into training and test sets. The randomness is controlled
by a pseudo random number generator, which generates random numbers using a seed. If you fix the seed, you
will actually always get the same partition (thus no randomness). That is why we set random_state=0. (We can
also use any other fixed number instead of 0, to acheive the same effect.) It guarantees that you reproduce the
same results in every run. It is useful in testing your programs. However, in your real production code where
randomness is needed, you shouldn’t fix random_state.
Next, we instantiate the KNeighborsClassifier class. This is when we can set parameters, like the number of
neighbors to use. Here, we set it to 3:
In [10]: knn = KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=3)
Now, we fit the classifier using the training set. For KNeighborsClassifier this means storing the dataset, so we
can compute neighbors during prediction:
In [10]: knn.fit(train_feature, train_class)
To make predictions on the test data, we call the predict method. For each data point in the test set, this
computes its nearest neighbors in the training set and finds the most common class among these:
In [11]: print(“Test set predictions:\n{}”.format(knn.predict(test_feature)))
To evaluate how well our model generalizes, we can call the score method with the test data together with the
test labels:
In [12]: print(“Test set accuracy: {:.2f}”.format(knn.score(test_feature, test_cl
ass)))
Out[10]: KNeighborsClassifier(algorithm=’auto’, leaf_size=30, metric=’minkowsk
i’,
metric_params=None, n_jobs=1, n_neighbors=3, p=2,
weights=’uniform’)
Test set predictions:
[0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0]
Test set accuracy: 0.92
We see that our model is about 92% accurate, meaning the model predicted the class correctly for 92% of the
samples in the test dataset.
Analyzing KNeighborsClassifier
Let’s investigate whether we can confirm the connection between model complexity and generalization. For
that, we evaluate training and test set performance with different numbers of neighbors.
In [13]: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
cancer = load_breast_cancer()
train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=0)
training_accuracy = []
test_accuracy = []
# try n_neighbors from 1 to 10.
neighbors_settings = range(1, 11)
for n_neighbors in neighbors_settings:
# build the model
knn = KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=n_neighbors)
knn.fit(train_feature, train_class)
# record training set accuracy
training_accuracy.append(knn.score(train_feature, train_class))
# record generalization accuracy
test_accuracy.append(knn.score(test_feature, test_class))

plt.plot(neighbors_settings, training_accuracy, label=”training accurac
y”)
plt.plot(neighbors_settings, test_accuracy, label=”test accuracy”)
plt.ylabel(“Accuracy”)
plt.xlabel(“n_neighbors”)
plt.legend()
plt.show()
The plot shows the training and test set accuracy on the y-axis against the setting of n_neighbors on the x-axis.
While real-world plots are rarely very smooth, we can still recognize some of the characteristics of overfitting
and underfitting. Considering a single nearest neighbor, the prediction on the training set is perfect. But when
more neighbors are considered, the model becomes simpler and the training accuracy drops. The test set
accuracy for using a single neighbor is lower than when using more neighbors, indicating that using the single
nearest neighbor leads to a model that is too complex. On the other hand, when considering 10 neighbors, the
model is too simple and performance is even worse. (It is not a typo. Yes, using less neighbors leads to more
complex models. Think carefully about this.) The best performance is somewhere in the middle, using around
six neighbors. Still, it is good to keep the scale of the plot in mind. The worst performance is around 88%
accuracy, which might still be acceptable.
4. Linear Support Vector Machines
Linear support vector machines (linear SVMs) is implemented in svm.LinearSVC. Let’s apply it on the brest
cancer dataset.
In [20]: from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.svm import LinearSVC
cancer = load_breast_cancer()
train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=0)
linearsvm = LinearSVC(random_state=0).fit(train_feature, train_class)
print(“Test set score: {:.3f}”.format(linearsvm.score(test_feature, test
_class)))
5. Naive Bayes Classifiers
Naive Bayes classifiers are also implemented in scikit-learn. Since the features in the breast cancer dataset are
all continuous numeric attributes, let’s use GaussianNB.
Test set score: 0.825
In [21]: from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.naive_bayes import GaussianNB
cancer = load_breast_cancer()
train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=0)
nb = GaussianNB().fit(train_feature, train_class)
print(“Test set score: {:.3f}”.format(nb.score(test_feature, test_class
)))
6. Decision trees
Decision trees are also implmented in scikit-learn. Let’s use DecisionTreeClassifier.
In [22]: from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
cancer = load_breast_cancer()
train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=42)
tree = DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=0)
tree.fit(train_feature, train_class)
print(“Training set score: {:.3f}”.format(tree.score(train_feature, trai
n_class)))
print(“Test set score: {:.3f}”.format(tree.score(test_feature, test_clas
s)))
If we don’t restrict the depth of a decision tree, the tree can become arbitrarily deep and complex. Unpruned
trees are therefore prone to overfitting and not generalizing well to new data. Now let’s apply pre-pruning to the
tree, which will stop developing the tree before we perfectly fit to the training data. One option is to stop
building the tree after a certain depth has been reached. In the above code, we didn’t set max_depth (i.e.,
max_depth= None, which is the default value). Nodes are expanded until all leaves are pure or until all leaves
contain less than min_samples_split instances (min_samples_split is another parameter in
DecisionTreeClassifier). Now let’s set max_depth=4, meaning only four consecutive questions can be asked.
Limiting the depth of the tree decreases overfitting. This leads to a lower accuracy on the training set, but an
improvement on the test set:
Test set score: 0.923
Training set score: 1.000
Test set score: 0.937
In [23]: from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
cancer = load_breast_cancer()
train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split(
cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=42)
tree = DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=4, random_state=0)
tree.fit(train_feature, train_class)
print(“Training set score: {:.3f}”.format(tree.score(train_feature, trai
n_class)))
print(“Test set score: {:.3f}”.format(tree.score(test_feature, test_clas
s)))
Analyzing Decision Trees
We can visualize the tree using the export_graphviz function from the tree module. This writes a file in the .dot
file format, which is a text file format for storing graphs. We set an option to color the nodes to reflect the
majority class in each node and pass the class and features names so the tree can be properly labeled:
In [24]: from sklearn.tree import export_graphviz
export_graphviz(tree, out_file=”tree.dot”, class_names=[“malignant”, “be
nign”],
feature_names=cancer.feature_names, impurity=False, fill
ed=True)
Training set score: 0.988
Test set score: 0.951
In [25]: import graphviz
from IPython.display import display
with open(“./tree.dot”) as f:
dot_graph = f.read()
display(graphviz.Source(dot_graph))
Feature Importance in trees
Instead of looking at the whole tree, there are some useful properties that we can derive to summarize the
workings of the tree. The most commonly used summary is feature importance, which rates how important each
feature is for the decision a tree makes. It is a number between 0 and 1 for each feature, where 0 means “not
used at all” and 1 means “perfectly predicts the target.” The feature importances always sum to 1:
In [26]: print(“Feature importances:\n{}”.format(tree.feature_importances_))
7. Model Evaluation
worst radius <= 16.795 samples = 426 value = [159, 267] class = benign worst concave points <= 0.1359 samples = 284 value = [25, 259] class = benign True texture error <= 0.4732 samples = 142 value = [134, 8] class = malignant False radius error <= 1.0475 samples = 252 value = [4, 248] class = benign worst texture <= 25.62 samples = 32 value = [21, 11] class = malignant smoothness error <= 0.0033 samples = 251 value = [3, 248] class = benign samples = 1 value = [1, 0] class = malignant samples = 4 value = [1, 3] class = benign samples = 247 value = [2, 245] class = benign worst smoothness <= 0.1786 samples = 12 value = [3, 9] class = benign worst symmetry <= 0.2682 samples = 20 value = [18, 2] class = malignant samples = 10 value = [1, 9] class = benign samples = 2 value = [2, 0] class = malignant samples = 3 value = [1, 2] class = benign samples = 17 value = [17, 0] class = malignant samples = 5 value = [0, 5] class = benign worst concavity <= 0.1907 samples = 137 value = [134, 3] class = malignant worst texture <= 30.975 samples = 5 value = [2, 3] class = benign samples = 132 value = [132, 0] class = malignant samples = 3 value = [0, 3] class = benign samples = 2 value = [2, 0] class = malignant Feature importances: [ 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.01019737 0.04839825 0. 0. 0.0024156 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.72682851 0.0458159 0. 0. 0.0141577 0. 0.018188 0.1221132 0.01188548 0. ] To evaluate our supervised models, so far we have split our dataset into a training set and a test set using the train_test_split function, built a model on the training set by calling the fit method, and evaluated it on the test set using the score method, which for classification computes the fraction of correctly classified samples. Confusion Matrix scikit-learn has its own function for producing confusion matrix. But, let's use pandas which is a popular Python package for data analysis. Its crosstab function produces a better-looking confusion matrix. In [27]: import pandas as pd from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier cancer = load_breast_cancer() train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split( cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=42) tree = DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=4, random_state=0) tree.fit(train_feature, train_class) print("Training set score: {:.3f}".format(tree.score(train_feature, trai n_class))) print("Test set score: {:.3f}".format(tree.score(test_feature, test_clas s))) prediction = tree.predict(test_feature) print("Confusion matrix:") print(pd.crosstab(test_class, prediction, rownames=['True'], colnames=[ 'Predicted'], margins=True)) Cross-Validation Training set score: 0.988 Test set score: 0.951 Confusion matrix: Predicted 0 1 All True 0 49 4 53 1 3 87 90 All 52 91 143 The reason we split our data into training and test sets is that we are interested in measuring how well our model generalizes to new, previously unseen data. We are not interested in how well our model fit the training set, but rather in how well it can make predictions for data that was not observed during training. Cross-validation is a statistical method of evaluating generalization performance that is more stable and thorough than using a split into a training and a test set. Cross-validation is implemented in scikit-learn using the cross_val_score function from the model_selection module. The parameters of the cross_val_score function are the model we want to evaluate, the training data, and the ground-truth labels. Let’s evaluate DecisionTreeClassifier on the breast cancer dataset. We can control the number of folds used by setting the cv parameter. We also summarize the cross-validation accuracy by computing the mean accuracy of the multiple folds. scikit-learn uses stratified k-fold cross-validation for classification. In stratified cross-validation, we split the data such that the proportions between classes are the same in each fold as they are in the whole dataset. In [28]: from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier cancer = load_breast_cancer() tree = DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=4, random_state=0) scores = cross_val_score(tree, cancer.data, cancer.target, cv=5) print("Cross-validation scores: {}".format(scores)) print("Average cross-validation score: {:.2f}".format(scores.mean())) 8. How to Save Your Trained Model into a Pickle Object Python’s pickle module serializes objects so that they can be saved to a file and loaded in a program again later on. Below we show how to save your model as a pickle object and how to load it back in your program. Cross-validation scores: [ 0.92173913 0.88695652 0.9380531 0.929203 54 0.90265487] Average cross-validation score: 0.92 In [29]: from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split from sklearn.svm import LinearSVC from sklearn.externals import joblib import pickle cancer = load_breast_cancer() train_feature, test_feature, train_class, test_class = train_test_split( cancer.data, cancer.target, stratify=cancer.target, random_state=0) linearsvm = LinearSVC(random_state=0).fit(train_feature, train_class) #store your trained model as pickle object joblib.dump(linearsvm, 'SVM.pkl') #load a pickle object trained_model = joblib.load('SVM.pkl') print("Test set score: {:.3f}".format(trained_model.score(test_feature, test_class))) 9. Details and How to Improve the Classifiers To figure out what parameters are available in the various classification methods, you can read more about the specifications of the corresponding Python classes: http://scikitlearn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier.html#sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsC (http://scikitlearn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier.html#sklearn.neighbors.KNeighborsC http://scikitlearn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.naive_bayes.GaussianNB.html#sklearn.naive_bayes.GaussianNB (http://scikitlearn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.naive_bayes.GaussianNB.html#sklearn.naive_bayes.GaussianNB) http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.svm.LinearSVC.html#sklearn.svm.LinearSVC (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.svm.LinearSVC.html#sklearn.svm.LinearSVC) http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier.html (http://scikitlearn.org/stable/modules/generated/sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier.html) You can even read the following tutorials about these methods. http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/neighbors.html (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/neighbors.html) http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/naive_bayes.html (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/naive_bayes.html) http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/svm.html (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/svm.html) http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/tree.html (http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/tree.html) Test set score: 0.825 10. Programming Assignment Dataset In this assigment, you will use a dataset that has claims related to U.S. congressional and electoral voting. The dataset (voting_data.csv) contains four types of claims, including claims related to 'In-progress/Eventual Results of Electoral Voting' denoted as 'E', 'Votes in Congressional Voting' denoted as 'V', 'Outcome of Congressional Voting' denoted as 'O', and claims not related to these three classes "Others". The dataset has only two columns: 'text' and 'label'. All the files for this assignment can be downloaded from Blackboard ("Course Materials" > “Programming
Assignments” > “Programming Assignment 2 (P2)” > “Attached Files”).
Programming Language
You are required to use Python 3.6.x. We will test your code under the particular version of Python 3.6.x. So
make sure you develop your code using the same version. You are free to use anything from the Python
Standard Library that comes with Python 3.6.x (https://docs.python.org/3.6/library/
(https://docs.python.org/3.6/library/)).
For classification algorithms, you are allowed to use scikit learn, a free machine learning library for Python
(http://scikit-learn.org/stable/supervised_learning.html#supervised-learning (http://scikitlearn.org/stable/supervised_learning.html#supervised-learning)).
For feature extraction and data manupilation, you are allowed to use any of the following non-standard Python
packages:
Pandas (http://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/version/0.15/tutorials.html)
Numpy (https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/user/quickstart.html)
NLTK (https://www.nltk.org)
spaCy (https://spacy.io)
Gensim (https://radimrehurek.com/gensim/)
In this assignment, you are not allowed to use any other non-standard Python package other than ones
mentioned above.
Tasks
In this assigment, you do multi-class classification to classify a sentence into one of the four classes (“E”, “V”,
“O”, “Others”). The goal is to achieve the best performance by exploring several different classifiers and
features. You can define as many functions as you want, but your code must execute in the following three
modes. Please also refer to section “Sample Output” below for the correct format of input and output.
1) Training mode: The user will issue the command line below.
python P2.py –mode train –input input_file
Your program will train your best model on the given input file. Use 75% of the input data for training and 25%
for testing. Note that you should not set random_state to a fixed value, since this is the “production code”. The
trained model will be saved as a pickle object in the same directory with your code (refer to “How to use the
pickle module” below). Then you need to evaluate your trained model by using the test data (i.e., 25% of the
input file). Print out the classification report and the confusion matrix for the trained model. Note that there are
four classes of claims. Hence the confusion matrix should be 5 x 5, since we are also reporting the results for
“All”.
2) Cross_validation mode: The user will issue the command line below.
python P2.py –mode cross_val –input input_file
You need to use the same mothod with the same parameters in 1). However, instead of using 75%/25%
train/test split, apply 10-fold stratified cross-validation. Print out the accuracy of each fold and print out the
average accuracy across all the folds.
3) Predict mode: The user will issue the command line below.
python P2.py –mode predict –input input_sentence
You need to load the pretrained model that you saved as pickle object in 1) and use that to make predictions on
the input sentence.
Sample Output
–> python P2.py –mode train –input voting_data.csv
Classification Report:
precision recall f1-score support
E 0.89 0.57 0.70 14
O 0.82 0.82 0.82 11
Others 0.72 0.78 0.75 23
V 0.89 0.97 0.93 34
avg / total 0.83 0.83 0.82 82
Confusion Matrix:
Predicted E O Others V All
True
E 8 0 4 2 14
O 0 9 2 0 11
Others 1 2 18 2 23
V 0 0 1 33 34
All 9 11 25 37 82
–> python P2.py –mode cross_val –input voting_data.csv
Cross-validation scores: [0.74285714 0.62857143 0.74285714 0.81818182 0.
875 0.93548387 0.87096774 0.83870968 0.80645161 0.77419355]
Average cross-validation score: 0.80
–> python P2.py –mode predict –input ‘And as you know, nobody can reach the White House without the
Hispanic vote.’
Others
–> python P2.py –mode predict –input ‘Barack Obama did not vote for sanctions against Iran.’
V
–> python P2.py –mode predict –input ‘65% of Texas voters casted a ballot for Donald Trump.’
E
What to Submit
You are required to submit a single .py file of your code.
Grading Rubrics
Your program will be evaluated on correctness, efficiency, accuracy, and code quality.
Make sure to thoroughly understand the grading rubrics in file “rubrics.txt”.
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