# CSE 220: Systems Fundamentals I Homework #3 solved

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## Description

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Introduction
The focus of this homework is to re-enforce the MIPS register conventions, function calling, memory organization, and multi-dimensional arrays.
In this assignment, you will write functions to create a simple text editor similar to vi. If you are unfamiliar with
the editor, follow this tutorial and play with the editor to edit a file on Sparky.
To create the editor, we will use a basic display which operates similarly to VT100. The standard VT100 terminal
uses ANSI escape codes to specify the foreground and background colors of each position of the terminal. To
display the data, the VT100 uses Memory Mapped I/O (MMIO).
o For this assignment, unless otherwise stated, you do not have to validate any arguments passed to the functions you implement.
CSE 220 –  Homework #3 Page 1
Part 1 – String Functions
Before we can create the text editor we need to write basic string functions to use. In this assignment, we will
define whitespace to be any of the following characters:
• null character (‘\0’)
• newline character (‘\n’)
• space character (‘ ’)
A whitespace character can match with any other whitespace character, i.e. when explicitly stated as whitespace,
a null should be treated as though it were equivalent to a newline.
(a) int is_whitespace(char c)
This function checks if a character, c, is a whitespace character or not. It returns 1 if c is a whitespace
character, otherwise it returns 0.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• c : Character to check.
• returns: 1 if c is a whitespace character, otherwise returns 0.
(b) int cmp_whitespace(char c1, char c2)
This function checks if the characters c1 and c2 are both whitespace characters. If they are both whitespace characters then the function returns 1, otherwise it returns 0.
o This function MUST call is_whitespace.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• c1 : First character.
• c2 : Second character.
• returns: If both c1 and c2 are whitespace characters return 1 otherwise return 0.
(c) void strcpy(String src, String dest, int n)
This function copies n bytes from a source string, src, into a destination string, dest. If the src address is
lower than or equal to dest, then this function doesn’t do anything.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• src : The address the string is copied from.
• dest : The address the string is copied to.
• n : Number of bytes to copy from src to dest.
(d) int strlen(String s)
This function takes the address of a string, s, as an argument and calculates the length in bytes. The function will calculate the length of the string until a whitespace character is encountered.
o This function MUST call is_whitespace.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• s : String to calculate the length of.
• returns: length of the string until the whitespace character.
CSE 220 –  Homework #3 Page 2
VT100 Display
TheVT100 Display is a basic display. To display the data, the VT100 uses Memory Mapped I/O (MMIO) andANSI
escape codes to specify the foreground and background colors of each cell of the terminal.
For this assignment, we will use a tool built into Mars called the CSE220 Display MMIO Simulator which located
in the tools menu called CSE220 Display MMIO Simulator.
This tool simulates video memory which is mapped directly to an address in memory, aka Memory Mapped I/O
(MMIO). The simulator will treat the bytes starting at 0xffff0000 to 0xffff0fa0 as the values of a 25 row
by 80 column console. The simulator will attempt to translate the values stored at these memory addresses as
values to print to its display. Each cell of the simulator is mapped to a half word (2 bytes) in memory. The upper
byte stores the color (described later) and the lower byte stores the ASCII character displayed. Each row consists
of 80 columns and each column is 2 bytes in size, therefore, each row is 160 bytes. The total continuous region
of memory for the MMIO is 4000 bytes, as there are 25 rows.
Bytes [0:1] (addresses 0xffff0000 & 0xffff0001) contain the data for display at location (0,0) on the simulator. Byte 0 is the 8-bit value of the ASCII character to display on the screen. Byte 1 is the 8-bit format for
the coloring information for the location at which the character is being displayed. The next two bytes [2:3]
(0xffff0002 & 0xffff0003) make up the value to display at location (0,1). Bytes [4:5] (0xffff0004 &
0xffff0005) make up the value to display at (0,2). Etc.
The MMIO cell has the following layout:
The MMIO region of memory is stored in Row-Major Order. The following figure illustrates this mapping.
VT100 colors
Colors on the VT100 display are controlled by specific values stored in the upper byte of each half word. The
foreground color is the color of the ASCII character which is displayed. The background color is the color of the
entire cell. Below is a chart of the colors available and their corresponding decimal values. The ATTRIBUTE_VALUE,
also known as the BOLD BIT, determines the depth of the color.
To store all of the color information into a single byte, the following format is used. For example, for Green background and Bright Magenta foreground the hexadecimal value of the color format is 0x2D.
Part 2 – VT100 MMIO Functions
To create the text editor we need to have a structure to store information about the current state of the editor, such as the position of the cursor and the default foreground and background colors. The following state
structure is defined to hold the default foreground and background color for the console, the foreground and
background color for syntax highlighting (to be specified in Part 3), and the (x,y) position of the cursor within the
VT100 display.
struct state {
# a nibble is 4 bits (half a byte)
nibble default_fg;
nibble default_bg;
nibble highlight_fg;
CSE 220 – Homework #3 Page 5
nibble highlight_bg;
byte cursor_x;
byte cursor_y;
};
In a typical text editor, the position of the cursor in the display is specified by some visual character, such as |
or _. This type of visual is difficult in our MMIO display. Therefore, instead we will invert the bold bit for the
foreground and background of the MMIO cell for which the cursor is currently positioned at. For example, if the
default colors for the display is Bright Blue background with Black foreground then the color byte will have value
0xC0. If the cursor is positioned on this cell, the color byte will instead be set to 0x48.
In this part of the assignment the goal is to implement functions which interact with the state of the text editor
and the VT100 MMIO.
(e) void set_state_color(struct state, byte color, int category, int mode)
This function sets one of the color properties of the state struct. If category is 1 then the highlight
color property is set, otherwise, the default color property is set. The mode specifies the operation of
this function as shown in the table below:
Mode Operation
0 set both fg and bg
1 set only fg
2 set only bg
color has the same format as a VT100 color byte.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• state : The address of the state struct representing the current state.
• color : The byte describing the VT100 color in the VT100 color format.
• category : The color category that is being set (0 is default, 1 is highlight).
• mode : The mode specifies if the foreground, background or both colors are set.
(f) void save_char(struct state, char c)
This function updates the ASCII value displayed on the VT100 to c at the cursor’s position specified in the
state struct.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• state : The address of the state struct representing the current state.
• c : The character to put at the cursor’s position.
(g) void reset(struct state, int color_only)
This function resets the VT100 display. If the color_only option is specified then all the color is set to
the default value specified in the state struct. If color_only is set to 0 then update the color and set the
ASCII byte to null.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• state : The address of the state struct representing the current state.
• color_only : If 1, clear color only, otherwise, clear both color and ASCII.
CSE 220 – Homework #3 Page 6
(h) void clear_line(byte x, byte y, byte color)
This function clears ASCII characters (‘\0’) and sets the color to color start at the (x,y) position until
the end of the row, (x, 79).
Function parameter and return value summary:
• x : The row on the VT100 display.
• y : The column on the VT100 display.
• color : The color to set the VT100 cells to.
(i) void set_cursor(struct state, byte x, byte y, int initial)
This function updates the location of the cursor. First, clear the cursor color from the original position,
update the cursors’ location in the state struct to (x,y) and then set the VT100 cell to show the cursor at
the new location. If initial is set to 1, then this function will not clear the cursor first.
 Clearing and setting the cursor are identical. The foreground and background bold bits need to
be inverted.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• state : The address of the state struct representing the current state.
• x : New row value for the cursor.
• y : New column value for the cursor.
• initial : If initial is set to 1 then the cursor is not cleared first, otherwise it is.
(j) void move_cursor(struct state, char direction)
This function moves the cursor from the (x,y) position specified in state by one cell in the direction specified by the direction argument. The value of direction argument specifies the direction as shown in
the table below:
ASCII Char Direction
h Left
j Down
k Up
l Right
This function does not support cursor wrapping around the edges of the screen. Instead, if the caller function attempts to move the cursor in a direction outside the range of the screen, the function does not move
the cursor. E.g:
• If the cursor is at (0,0) and the direction is specified as ‘h’ or ‘k’, the cursor remains at (0,0).
• If the cursor is at(24,79)and the direction is specified as‘l’or‘j’, the cursor remains at(24,79).
o This function MUST call set_cursor.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• state : The address of the state struct representing the current state.
• direction : The ASCII letter specifying the direction to move the cursor in.
(k) int mmio_streq(String mmio, String b) This function takes the address of two strings, mmio
and b, as arguments and compares the two to see if they match. The function will check the strings until
(and including) a whitespace is encountered in either of the strings. If the strings are equal, the function
will return 1. If they are not equal, the function will return 0.
CSE 220 – Homework #3 Page 7
The important difference here is that mmio is a sequence of VT100 cells and b is a regular string.
o This function MUST call cmp_whitespace.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• mmio : Address of the start of the MMIO string.
• b : The regular string that the MMIO string should be compared to.
• returns: 1 if strings are equal, 0 if they are not.
The Main Program
The main program uses the functions you implement to simulate our version of the vi editor. Upon start up,
the main program will prompt you to enter your selection for the default foreground and background colors.
The color range of the VT100 colors is 0-15, any input outside this range will result in a re-prompt. It will then
prompt you to enter your selection for the highlight foreground and background colors. After the colors have
been set, the main will then call reset to initialize the MMIO and initializing the cursor by calling set_cursor.
It then enters an indefinite loop that waits for a user to enter a character and then performs an action based
on the input. If it is a regular character then it is simply displayed on the screen and the cursor is advanced. If
it is a newline, the main program calls handle_nl (to be implemented in Part 3). If it is a backtick character
(‘
8’), the main program calls handle_cmd (to be implemented in Part 3). This function will read the command
and call functions you implemented appropriately. highlight_all, the function which manages the syntax
highlighting feature, is called after a space character, newline character or a command is entered.
Command mode
Similar to the vi text editor, we will allow commands to be executed. To enter a command we will first type the
backtick character (‘
8’), commonly located under the tilde on the keyboard. Then a single letter is accepted to
specify the type of operation to be performed, such as moving the cursor, setting the colors, or performing the
backspace operation. The following table specifies the supported commands in our text editor.
Command Operation
8h Move cursor left 1 position (unless at boundary)
8j Move cursor down 1 position (unless at boundary)
8k Move cursor up 1 position (unless at boundary)
8l Move cursor right 1 position (unless at boundary)
8d Backspace
8F# Set the default foreground color to the # specified
8B# Set the default background color to the # specified
8f# Set the highlight foreground color to the # specified
8b# Set the highlight background color to the # specified
8q Quit the program
o When setting the foreground or background colors for the state of the text editor the commands will additional accept an integer value in the range of [0-15]. You must press enter after inputting the number the
complete the read int syscall. The syscall does not accept any non numerical characters.
Our text editor would not be complete without syntax highlighting! The highlight colors in the state structure
CSE 220 – Homework #3 Page 8
specify the foreground and background colors to apply to any symbols or words found in a specified dictionary.
We have provided a sample dictionary in hw3_dict.asm. The dictionary array may contain any number of entries, with the terminating entry in the array set to the value of NULL (aka 0x00000000).
o All the functionality described in the main program subsection above has been provided to you. You DO NOT
need to implement the main. You should implement your own main(s) to test each of your functions individually.
Once, all of them are working correctly, you can use our main to run the vi text editor.
Part 3 – UI/UX Functions
In this part of the assignment, you will create functions to handle different input operations, such as commands,
newlines, and to syntax highlight specified dictionary words/characters in the terminal.
(l) void handle_nl(struct state)
This function handles the newline action of the editor. First, save a newline character in the current position
of the cursor. Then, clear (set default color and ASCII to ‘\0’) the rest of the line. Lastly, move the cursor to
the start of the next line. If the cursor is already at the last row, the function moves the cursor to the start
of the row.
o This function MUST call clear_line and save_char. The implementation will also need to
use set_cursor or move_cursor or both.
(m) void handle_backspace(struct state)
This function handles the backspace action of the editor. The action only applies to the row the cursor is
currently positioned on. In row x, it will copy the n+1th byte to the nth position starting from y until 79. x
and y are obtained from the location of the cursor. (x,79) will be reset to the default color and the ASCII
character will be set to ’\0’. The cursor will also be moved left one position.
If the function is called when the cursor is at the start of the line, no action is performed.
 This function MUST call strcpy. and set_cursor.
(n) void highlight(byte x, byte y, byte color, int n)
This function highlights n VT100 cells with color starting from (x,y). This function should traverse in
row major order.
Function parameter and return value summary:
• x : Row of starting location.
• y : Column of starting location.
• color : The VT100 color that should be set.
• n : The number of VT100 cells that should be highlighted.
(o) void highlight_all(byte color, String[] dictionary)
This function will manage the syntax highlighting of all the ASCII text that is visible on the MMIO display.
This function is detailed by the following pseudocode.
while (not end_of_display) {
while (is_whitespace) {
CSE 220 –Homework #3 Page 9
move to next MMIO cell
}
// save the current cell position
for each (word in dictionary) {
check if string starting at current cell is in the dictionary
if (match) {
highlight word
}
}
// starting from current cell position
while (not is_whitespace) {
move to next cell
}
}
o This function must call is_whitespace, strlen, and highlight.
o The last entry of the dictionary array holds a null (0) word to denote that there are no more entries.
Hand-in instructions
Do not add any miscellaneous printouts, as this will probably make the grading script give you a zero. Please print
out the text exactly as it is displayed in the examples, one output line ONLY.
See Sparky Submission Instructions on Piazza for hand-in instructions. There is no tolerance for homework submission via email. They must be submitted through Sparky. Please do not wait until the last minute to submit
your homework. If you are struggling, stop by office hours.
When writing your program try to comment as much as possible. Try to stay consistent with your formatting. It