# CSCI561 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Homework 3 solved

\$35.00

## Description

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You are the CTO of a new startup company, SpeedRacer, and you want your
autonomous cars to navigate throughout the city of Los Angeles. The cars can move
North, South, East, or West (see directions to the right). The city can be represented in a
grid, as below:
0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0
0,1 1,1 2,1 3,1 4,1
0,2 1,2 2,2 3,2 4,2
0,3 1,3 2,3 3,3 4,3
0,4 1,4 2,4 3,4 4,4
N
S
W E
There will be some obstacles, such as buildings, road closings, etc. If a car crashes
into a building or road closure, SpeedRacer has to pay \$100. You know the locations
of these, and they will not change over time. You also spend \$1 for gas each time you
move. The cars will start from a given SpeedRacer parking lot, and will end at
another parking lot. When you arrive at your destination parking lot, you will
receive \$100. Your goal is to make the most money1 over time with the greatest
likelihood. Your cars have a faulty turning mechanism, so they have a chance of
going in a direction other than the one suggested by your model. They will go in the
correct direction 70% of the time (10% in each other direction, including along
borders).
should try to go in each city grid location given your goal of making the most money.
Then, to make sure that this is a good algorithm when you present it to the rest of
your board, you should simulate the car moving through the city grid. To do this,
you will use your policy from your start location. You will then check to see if the car
went in the correct direction using a random number generator with specific seeds
to make sure you can reproduce your output. You will simulate your car moving
through the city grid 10 times using the random seeds 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
You will report the mean over these 10 simulations as an integer after using the
floor operation (e.g., numpy.floor(meanResult)). An example of this process is
given in detail below.
Input: The file input.txt in the current directory of your program will be formatted
as follows:
First line: strictly positive 32-bit integer s, size of grid [grid is a square of size sxs]
Second line: strictly positive 32-bit integer n, number of cars
Third line: strictly positive 32-bit integer o, number of obstacles
Next o lines: 32-bit integer x, 32-bit integer y, denoting the location of obstacles
Next n lines: 32-bit integer x, 32-bit integer y, denoting the start location of each
car
Next n lines: 32-bit integer x, 32-bit integer y, denoting the terminal location of
each car
Output:
n lines: 32-bit integer, denoting the mean money earned in simulation for each
car, integer result of floor operation
1
Note that although we would like to make the most money possible, you MUST use
the parameters we provide to make sure everyone gets the same value. Other
parameters may give better results, but you should not use them. You SHOULD use
an approach we learned in class to make sure you get the same value.
Example:
Input.txt
3
1
1
0,1
2,0
0,0
Output.txt
95
For example, say you have a 3×3 grid, as follows, with 1 car in start position 2,0
(green):
99 -1 -1
-101 -1 -1
-1 -1 -1
You determine that based on the locations of certain obstacles, you should move in
these directions in each cell:
99 ¬ ¬
­ ­ ­
® ­ ­
Then, you should do simulation using this policy. Beginning at the start position,
move in the direction suggested by your policy. There is a 10% chance that you will
move South, so check your direction using random generation with random seed = 0
(see code below). In this case, you actually move West, so you will receive -\$1. You
will now try to move West again based on your policy. With the random seed = 0,
you successfully move South. Therefore, you now have -\$2. Repeat at your next
locations, until you end at your terminal state. Record the total money you have at
the end. Let’s say that the total is \$91. Then, repeat this process 9 more times. You
will average \$91 with the 9 other results, and report the number. If the result is
91.65093, for example, you should record the floor, 91, in your output file. Here are
the detailed steps for getting a value of 95 for the above input.txt, where the
iteration of simulation is given before several ~’s, and the moves to reach the
terminal state are provided followed by the value gained, and the total resulting
score:
0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5488135039273248
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7151893663724195
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.6027633760716439
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5448831829968969
SCORE: [96.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.417022004702574
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7203244934421581
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.00011437481734488664
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.30233257263183977
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.43599490214200376
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.025926231827891333
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
3~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5507979025745755
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7081478226181048
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.2909047389129443
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.510827605197663
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.9670298390136767
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5472322491757223
MOVE: (1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.9726843599648843
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7148159936743647
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.6977288245972708
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.21608949558037638
MOVE: (1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.9762744547762418
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.006230255204589863
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.25298236238344396
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
5~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.22199317108973948
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.8707323061773764
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.20671915533942642
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 97.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.8928601514360016
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.3319798053011772
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.8212291230578318
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.0416966257252499
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 97.0, 96.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
7~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.07630828937395717
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7799187922401146
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.4384092314408935
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.7234651778309412
MOVE: (0, 1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.9779895119966027
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5384958704104337
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5011204636599379
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.07205113335976154
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 97.0, 96.0, 92.0, 0.0, 0.0]
8~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.8734294027918162
MOVE: (1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.968540662820932
MOVE: (0, -1) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.86919454021392
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.530855691555599
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.2327283279772907
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 97.0, 96.0, 92.0, 95.0, 0.0]
9~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: -1.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.010374153885699955
MOVE: (-1, 0) VALUE GAINED: 99.0 SWERVE VALUE: 0.5018745921487388
SCORE: [96.0, 96.0, 98.0, 96.0, 91.0, 97.0, 96.0, 92.0, 95.0, 98.0]
AVERAGE SCORE: 95.5
FLOORED AVERAGE SCORE: 95
Code demonstrating how to determine the direction your car turns during
simulation is given below. You should use this directly without edits.
orientations = EAST, NORTH, WEST, SOUTH = [(1, 0), (0, -1), (-1, 0),
(0, 1)]
turns = LEFT, RIGHT = (+1, -1)
for i in range(len(cars)):
for j in range(10):
pos = cars[i]
numpy.random.seed(j)
swerve = numpy.random.random_sample(1000000)
k=0
while pos != ends[i]:
move = policies[i][pos]
if swerve[k] > 0.7:
if swerve[k] > 0.8:
if swerve[k] > 0.9:
move = turn_right(turn_right(move))
else:
move = turn_right(move)
else:
move = turn_left(move)
k += 1
Guidelines
This is a programming assignment. You are provided sample input and output files. Please
understand that the goal of these samples is to check that you can correctly parse the
problem definitions, and generate a correctly formatted output. The samples are very
simple and it should not be assumed that if your program works on the samples it will
work on all test cases. There will be more complex test cases and it is your task to make
sure that your program will work correctly on any valid input. You are encouraged to try
your own test cases to check how your program would behave in some complex special
case that you might think of. Since each homework is checked via an automated A.I.
script, your output should match the specified format exactly. Failure to do so will most
certainly cost points. The output format is simple and examples are provided. You should
upload and test your code on vocareum.com, and you will submit it there.
Your code will be tested as follows: Your program must not require any command-line
argument. It should read a text file called “input.txt” in the current directory that contains
a problem definition. It should write a file “output.txt” with your solution to the same
current directory. Format for input.txt and output.txt is specified below. End-of-line
character is LF (since Vocareum is a Unix system and follows the Unix convention).
• Create an input.txt file, delete any old output.txt file.
All homework material is checked vigorously for dishonesty using several methods. All
detected violations of academic honesty are forwarded to the Office of Student Judicial
Affairs. To be safe you are urged to err on the side of caution. Do not copy work from
another student or off the web. Keep in mind that sanctions for dishonesty are reflected
in your permanent record and can negatively impact your future success. As a general
guide:
• Do not copy code or written material from another student. Even single lines of
code should not be copied.
Do not collaborate on this assignment. The assignment is to be solved
individually.
Do not copy code off the web. This is easier to detect than you may think.
• Do not share any custom test cases you may create to check your program’s
behavior in more complex scenarios than the simplistic ones considered below.
Do not copy code from past students. We keep copies of past work to check for
this.
• Do ask the professor or TA if you are unsure about whether certain actions
constitute dishonesty. It is better to be safe than sorry.
Homework Rules
1. Use Python 2.7 to implement your homework assignment. You are allowed to use
standard libraries only. You have to implement any other functions or methods by
yourself.
2. Create a file named “hw3cs561f2018.py”. When you submit the homework on
labs.vocareum.com, the following commands will be executed:
python hw3cs561f2018.py
3. Create a file named “output.txt” and print its output there. For each test case, the
(which reads “input.txt”), and check the “output.txt” file generated by your code.
The grading script will replace the files automatically, so you do NOT need to do
anything for that part.
to the “/work” directory. Don’t create any subfolder or upload any other files.
Please refer to http://help.vocareum.com/article/30-getting-started-students to get
started with Vocareum.
5. Your program must handle all test cases within a maximum runtime of 3 minutes
per test case on Vocareum.
avoid any submission issues on Vocareum. Late submissions will not be graded.
1. Tie breaking. If values are the same for your available moves, choose to move in
directions in this order of preference: North, South, East, West.
2. Cars can be in the same grid cell at the same time. There is no need to consider
multi-agent coordination.
3. Calculating expected value. When considering future moves, make sure to give
them a lesser weight, specifically 0.9. You can stop calculating based on an error
factor of 0.1. (HINT: These are parameters for your algorithm.)
4. What if a car ends up turning “off grid” during simulation? The car should
just remain in the current cell, but will spend another \$1 on gas.
5. You may use numpy (and should use numpy where we do in the simulation).
a. During our computation of the policy, we use numpy.float64 precision
with the following parameters (you can see yours using numpy.finfo):
i. precision = 15
ii. resolution = 1.0000000000000001e-15
iii. machep = -52
iv. eps = 2.2204460492503131e-16
v. negep = -53
vi. epsneg = 1.1102230246251565e-16
vii. minexp = -1022
viii. tiny = 2.2250738585072014e-308
ix. maxexp = 1024
x. max = 1.7976931348623157e+308
xi. nexp = 11
xii. min = -max
b. During simulation, we use numpy.float64 precision with the following
parameters (you can see yours using numpy.finfo(type(swerve[k]))):
i. precision = 15
ii. resolution = 1.0000000000000001e-15
iii. machep = -52
iv. eps = 2.2204460492503131e-16
v. negep = -53
vi. epsneg = 1.1102230246251565e-16
vii. minexp = -1022
viii. tiny = 2.2250738585072014e-308
ix. maxexp = 1024
x. max = 1.7976931348623157e+308
xi. nexp = 11
xii. min = -max
6. Vocareum has a memory limit. It is 4194304 KB.
7. What if …?
a. The start position is surrounded by obstacles? This will not happen.
b. There is more than one obstacle in a cell? This will not happen.
c. What if the start/end location has an obstacle? This will not happen.
8. What is the value of the start state? All we have specified is that making a move is
what results in the -\$1 gas cost.
9. Is crashing or hitting an obstacle a terminal state? No.
10. It is very important to use the exact parameters we provide for your
simulation, as different answers will be marked as incorrect.
11. We will not give unsolvable inputs. This means that we won’t give any
irregular inputs that don’t conform to the format we’ve described in this
document.
12. Think about representing the problem.
a. What is a good representation of states and operators?
b. How can you use this to simplify the problem representation?
c. How will you evaluate the “score” of a state?