CSc 460 — Database Design Homework #2 solved


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Overview: Becoming proficient in formulating useful database queries takes practice. Knowing how to use
pure Relational Algebra is useful background for learning SQL. To use SQL, you may not need to call the
Relational Algebra operators directly, but you do need to specify the critical parts of them. It helps to know
how those parts fit in to the query.
Software: Richard Leyton, then a student at Oxford Brookes University, wrote a simple DBMS called LEAP
as a project. The current version of LEAP is 1.2.6 and runs reasonably well under the LINUX operating
system. The syntax of its relational algebra commands differs a bit from what we use in class, but converting
between the notations is not hard. There does exist a version of LEAP for Windows, but I have never used it
and so cannot recommend it.
To install LEAP into your lab account, here’s what you need to do:
1. From your home directory, type this: /home/cs460/fall18/leap/scripts/users/leapinstall
2. When asked to supply the LEAP source directory, respond with this: /home/cs460/fall18/leap
3. When asked to supply the target directory, just press Enter. It will default to a subdirectory named
leap in your account.
To run leap, here’s what you need to do:
1. Change directory to your local LEAP bin subdirectory: cd leap/bin
2. Run leap: ./leap
3. Give leap the command use company to select our sample database.
To execute the sample query I’ve provided (in leap/database/company/source/sample.src in your account),
run leap (see the three steps above) and give this LEAP command: @ sample Please note that for this
command to work, your source files must be in that directory (leap/database/company/source).
Here’s a brief list of useful LEAP commands and their syntax:
Operation General Format Example of Use
Use use database use rental
Select select (relation) (condition) r1=select (borrow) (amount=’1000’)
Project project (relation) (attr. list) r2=project (spj) (sno,qty)
Join join (rel1 ) (rel2 ) (condition) j=join (spj) (p) (spj.pno=p.pno)
Union (relation) union (relation) u=(employee) union (manager)
Intersection (relation) intersect (relation) int=(employee) intersect (manager)
Difference (relation) difference (relation) m=(employee) difference (manager)
Cartesian Product (relation) product (relation) prod=(s) product (spj)
Display a Relation display relation display prod
Copy a Relation duplicate (relation) copyofs = duplicate (s)
Execute a Source File @ filename @ sample
Quit LEAP quit quit
(Unfortunately (for you!), LEAP does not have the division operator.) Other LEAP commands can be learned
by reading the on–line help (type: help from within LEAP to get started) or the documentation files in the
doc and help subdirectories. Be aware that every attribute is of type STRING or INTEGER, and all constants
have to be specified in single quotes (yes, including integers!).
Assignment: The database already contains some relations for a company database in LEAP format. Here
are their schemas.
Employee (fname, minit, lname, ssn, bdate, address, sex, salary, superssn, dno)
Dept Locations (d#, dlocation)
Department (dname, dnumber, mgrssn, mgrstartdate)
Works On (empssn, pno, hours)
Proposal (pname, pnumber, plocation, dnum)
Dependent (essn, dependent name, sex, bdate, relationship)
I’ve underlined the primary key fields. Foreign keys should be easy to identify, as they have names similar to
the corresponding primary keys.
Your task is to create relational algebra queries that correctly answer the following questions. If a query is
impossible to answer using LEAP, explain why. (You will want to check with the class staff or your fellow
students before concluding that a query cannot be answered.)
1. List all attributes of the employees from department 5.
2. What are the SSNs of the employees working on proposal #10?
3. What is the Cartesian Product of the employees’ first names and the dependents’ names?
4. (You must not use JOIN for this query) At which locations is the research department located?
5. (You must use JOIN for this query) At which locations is the research department located?
6. What are the names of the departments with employees who have a dependent named Alice?
7. Retrieve the SSNs of the employees who work in department 5 or who directly supervise an employee in
department 5.
8. What are the birthdates of the managers of the proposals from Stafford?
9. What are the names of the departments managed by people who have dependent female spouses?
10. What are the names of the male dependents who are also dependent on a male employee? (Use ∩)
11. What are the salaries of the employees from department 5 who are NOT working on ProductY?
12. What are the names of the departments which employ all represented genders? (For this simple DB, this
means the departments that have at least one woman and at least one man. Yes, this is the ÷ query.)
Hand In: (1) Turn in a printout that shows your Relational Algebra queries and the answers LEAP produces
when it runs them. Please produce the answers in the same order as the questions are listed, and clearly
number each of your answers (you can do that by hand). Staple this handout to the front, being sure to write
your name on the first page. (2) Submit your LEAP queries (as a tar file) using turnin. The submission folder
is cs460h2.
Want to Learn More About LEAP? Visit (on–line help files!)
Other Requirements and Hints:
• You can easily capture LEAP’s output to a file by running LEAP within the script command. First type
script, then run LEAP, then type exit. Everything you saw on the screen is saved in a file named
typescript. Helpful hint: Never run a text editor from within script!
• In LEAP, you can create a .src file (named query1.src, for example) in the leap/database/company/source
directory in your account, and type into it the sequence of operations needed to answer question #1,
above. To execute a file of LEAP commands, type @ followed by the name of the .src file you want
to execute. (For example: @ query1) Do this while running LEAP, of course. This is a convenient
mechanism for storing your queries and for easily creating your final output for submission on the due
• I have attempted to write solutions to all of the assigned queries, and believe them to be possible to
answer using LEAP. Feel free to help each other out with workarounds, etc., to LEAP’s quirks, but write
your own queries. (If you pattern your script file(s) after the sample.src file I’ve provided, things should
work fine.)
• LEAP may have problems dealing with temporary relations of high degree; if you have problems, remove
extra attributes before performing joins.
• When LEAP crashes, it doesn’t clean up after itself, and as a result it can fail to restart. A simple
solution: Save copies of your .src files, and reinstall LEAP.
• And finally: Please remember that a correct answer is a query that produces the correct result in a
logically correct way! Write queries that will work even if the relations’ content changes.