CPSC 213: Assignment 6 solved

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The goal of this assignment is to explore dynamic control flow from several perspectives.
First, you will implement and test the double-indirect jump instructions. You will also examine
snippets that implement polymorphism.
Then you will expand on the polymorphism-in-C example we have discussed in class and that is
contained in snippet A to implement a pair of Java classes in C.
Then you will use function pointers to implement a generic iterator by modifying a C program
provided to you.
Finally, you will translate a C program that uses function pointers into an equivalent SM213
assembly program.
Then you will explore function pointers in C by modifying three C programs. You will replace
switch statements with jump tables, you will generalized a procedure by adding a functionpointer parameter, and you will modify the polymorphic-C example described in class to
implement a simple program that uses polymorphism, modelled after a Java program.
You may do this assignment in groups of two if you like. If you do, be sure that you both
contribute equally to the assignment and that you each work on every part of the assignment. Do
not split up the assignment in such a way that one of you does one part and the other does
another part. Keep in mind that the core benefit to you of doing the assignment is the learning
that happens while you do it. Each assignment is worth only around 1.8% of your grade, but
what you learn while doing the assignment goes a long way to determining the other 85%.
If you choose to do the entire assignment with a partner, submit one solution via handin and list
both of your names, student numbers, and computer-science login ids in the README file.
Alternatively, you can also choose to collaborate with another student for a portion of the
assignment and have your work marked individually. Do do this, simply submit your own
version via handin and list the other student as a collaborator in your README file. Just don’t do
this if you and your partner are turning in identical solutions, as we would like to realize marking
efficiency where possible. You may have at most one collaborator for the assignment; i.e., you
can not collaborate with one student for one part of the assignment and another student for
another part.
Code Provided this Week
The file contains the following files
that you will use with this assignment
• SA-dynamic-call.{c,s,java}
• A6-2.c
• A6-3.c
Part 1: Implement and Test Double-Indirect Jump Instructions
There are two remaining instructions to implement in the simulator, described below. Implement
them and augment your test.s to test them.
Part 2: Snippet SA
Examine the Java, C and assembly code for SA-dynamic-call. Run the assembly version in the
simulator and observe its behaviour. Unlike previous assignments you do not need to document
Part 3: Using Function Pointers for Polymorphism in C
The file contains a simple example of polymorphism using two classes: Person and
Student, which extends Person. Write a new C program called A6-1.c that does the same thing
in C. Start by copying SA-dynamic-call.c. Then make the necessary changes to replace A and
B with Person and Student.
Note that the name of the Java file has an underscore instead of a dash, because Java does not
allow dashes in class names. Your C program should use a dash, just as you have in other
assignments and as you do for the other parts of this assignment.
Instruction Assembly Format Semantics
dbl ind jmp b+d j *o(rt) dtpp pc ← m[r[t] + (o == pp*4)]
dbl ind jmp indx j *(rb,ri,4) ebi- pc ← m[r[b] + r[i]*4]
Hints: Emulating Java Objects
When extending the example code, you will need to consider a three additional issues related
emulating Java objects.
First, you will note that an instance of a subclass must contain the instance variables declared in
its superclass(s). For example, a Student object has both a name and an sid. Recall that like
the jump table, super-class variables need to be located at the same offset in the subclass as they
are in the super class. There are just two instance variables in this case, so its probably pretty
obvious that this is what you would do.
Second, as shown in class, instance methods in Java have an implicit, hidden parameter, a pointer
to the object on which the method is invoked that the method can access via “this” or implicitly
by naming instance variables with the “this.” suffix. In your C emulation, you will need to
make this parameter explicit. For example, a Java instance method declared this:
class A {
void foo() {…}
And called like this:;
In C would be declared something like this:
A_foo (struct A* this) {…}
And called like this:
A_foo (anA);
Finally, you will need to consider how to implement a subclass constructor. In Java, the subclass
constructor calls the superclass constructor using “super (…)”. But since we have not listed the
constructors (e.g., new_Student) in the class jump table, this isn’t possible in our C emulation.
If you’d like to add constructor to the jump table and go the Java way, that is fine. However, it is
also okay to simply have the subclass constructor just repeat the work of the superclass
constructor. So, for example, if the Java code looked like this:
class Super {
int x;
Super (int x) { this.x = x; }
class Sub extends Super {
int y;
Sub (int x, int y) { super(x); this.y = y; }
It would be fine if your C constructor for Sub did something like this:
struct Sub* new_Sub (int x, int y) {
struct Sub_object* this = (struct Sub_object*) malloc…;
this->class = &sub_class_obj;
this->x = x;
this->y = y;
Hints: Manipulating Strings in C
In addition to all of this, you will also be manipulating strings in your C program and strings in C
are more troublesome, by a long way, than strings in Java, due entirely to the dynamic-allocation
issues we talked about a couple of weeks ago; i.e., deciding what part of code is responsible for
freeing something that is malloced from the heap.
A C string is stored in an array of characters. The string itself, which can be smaller than the
array that contains it, is terminated by the first null (i.e., 0). You’ll need to consider a couple of
First, when a procedure receives a string as an input parameter, if it procedure stores that string,
it should make its own copy of the string rather than storing the string pointer. Storing the
pointer is dangerous because the caller could free the object following the call and thus turn this
stored value into a dangling pointer. By copying, the procedure ensures that its copy of the string
is safe from whatever its caller does with the string after the call returns.
You will want to use the standard method called strdup to do this (see its man page; e.g., via
google or by typing “man strdup” at a unix command line). You will also need to add
“#include <string.h>” to the beginning of your file.
For example your code should look like this:
void bar (struct X* anX, char* string) {
anX->string = strdup (string);
And not, as it would in Java, like this:
void bar (struct X* anX, char* string) {
anX->string = string;
Because if you did this, a caller that does the following creates a dangling pointer:
void foo (struct X* anX) {
char string[] = “Hello World”;
bar (anX, string);
Similarly, as we examined a couple of weeks ago, a C procedure should not return a pointer to an
object it dynamically allocates. Instead, it should leave it to its caller to perform the dynamic
allocation and simply copy its result to that location.
For example, Java code that looks like this:
String getString () {…}
Would in C look like this:
void getString (char* buf, int bufSize) {…}
Where buf is a pointer to memory provided by that caller into which getString copies its result
up to the limit of bufSize bytes.
Finally, you will need to convert numbers to strings and to concatenate strings. The easiest way
to do this is with the standard procedure called snprintf that uses printf formatting to write to
a string. So, for example if you wanted to create the string “Hello World 42” from the string
“Hello World” and the integer 42, you would do something like this:
char buf [1000];
snprintf (buf, sizeof (buf), “%s %d”, “Hello World”, 42);
Part 4: Using Function Pointers as Parameters in C
The file A6-2.c computes the sum of an array using a procedure called iterate. Modify this
program so that it computes the following functions on the array: sum, min, max, size, mean, and
median. The trick is, that all of these functions must use the same iterate procedure. That is,
you must modify iterate to add a function-pointer parameter that iterate uses in place of sum
and that allows callers of iterate to specify which operation they would like it to perform on
each list elements. Then implement the six array-summary listed above.
For extra credit change iterate so that it can iterate over lists of arbitrary-type elements and then
implement an iterator that concatenates a list of strings. If you do the extra credit, say so in your
README and place the extra credit version of the program in the file A6-2x.c. That is, you
must submit two versions of your solution.
Part 5: Function Pointers in Assembly
Examine, compile and run A6-3.c. Be sure you understand what it does and how.
Write an SM213 program called A6-3.s that might be what the compiler would produce when
compiling this C program. You program should treat the variables the same. Notice that
compute() takes three parameters, two of which are global variables. You code must do that
too. Do not name the global variables directly in compute(). In other words, you should be able
to call compute() on a different array without modifying compute(). Also note that the
functions add(), etc. are not called directly. You code must use function pointers in the same
way that this program does.
Here is a summary of the requirements for each part of this assignment.
1. Revise and test.s.
2. Examine snippet SA.
3. Modify SA to provide a simple example of polymorphism in a C in A6-1.c.
4. Write a generalize an iterator using function pointers by modifying A6-2.c.
5. Write the sm213 program A6-3.s
What to Hand In
Use the handin program. The assignment directory is a6.
1. A single file called “README.txt” that includes your name, student number, four-digit csdepartment undergraduate id (e.g., the one that’s something like a0b1), and all written
material required by the assignment as listed below.
2. If you had a partner for the entire assignment, turn in only one copy of your joint solution
under one of your ids and list both student’s complete information in the README.txt file
and include the text “PARTNER – MARK JOINTLY”.
3. If, on the other hand, you collaborated with another student for a portion of the
assignment, but your solutions are not identical and you want them marked individually,
each of you should include the other student’s complete information in your README.txt
file, include the text “COLLABORATOR – MARK SEPARATELY”, and turn in copies separately
via handin.
4. You are not required to answer any questions in the README.txt file this week.
5. The following files, test.s, A6-1.c, A6-2.c, and A6-3.s. If you do the extra
credit also include the file A6-2x.c.