CSCI3180 Assignment 2 — Your First Date with Python and Duck Typing solved

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1 Introduction
The purpose of this assignment is to offer you the first experience with Python, which supports
the Object-Oriented programming paradigm. Our main focuses are Dynamic Typing and Duck
Typing. Please use Python 3.6 to finish this assignment.
The assignment consists of 4 tasks.
• You need to implement a famous board game called Six Men’s Morris in Python.
• You are asked to demonstrate the advantages/disadvantages of dynamic typing through some
example code, which could be taken from any code you write for this assignment.
• We give you the Java source code of a game called “Save The Tribe”. You need to reimplement the game in Python to make the code cleaner with the help of Duck Typing.
• Additional features and mechanisms are introduced to the “Save The Tribe” game. You need
to implement the enhanced game in both Java and Python.
After completing the 4 tasks, you need to write a report elaborating on Dynamic Typing and Duck
Typing.
NOTES: all your codes will be graded on the Linux machines in the Department. You are
welcome to develop your codes on any platform, but please remember to test them on Department
machines.
2 Task 1: Six Men’s Morris
This is a programming exercise for you to get familiar with Python, which is a dynamically typed
language. In this task, you have to strictly follow our proposed OO design and the game rules for
the 2-player “Six Men’s Morris” game stated in this section.
Six Men’s Morris is a popular game in Italy, France and England during the Middle Ages but
was obsolete by 1600. You can have a try to play this game in https://www.novelgames.com/
en/sixmensmorris.
For simplicity, we want you to implement a watered-down version of Six Men’s Morris. The
detailed specification or game rules are described as follows.
2.1 Description
The game board consists of a grid with 16 intersections or points as shown in Figure 1. Each
player has six pieces, or “men”, coloured black or white. Players try to form “mills”— three
of their men lined up horizontally or vertically—allowing a player to remove the opponent’s
man from the game board. For simplicity, Player 1 always uses the white pieces and Player 2 uses
the black ones.
The game proceeds in the following two phases.
1. Placing the pieces. The game begins with an empty board. Player 1 first starts to play
and the two players take turns placing their men, one per turn on empty points. This phase
will last for 6 rounds since each player has only 6 men. Note that a player forming a mill
can remove one of the opponent’s pieces from the board. However, no one can win during
Phase 1. After all men are placed, Phase 2 begins.
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Figure 1: Game board for Six Men’s Morris.
2. Moving the pieces. Players again alternate moves, this time moving a man to an adjacent
and unoccupied point. A piece may not “jump over” another piece. Players continue to
try to form mills and remove their opponent’s pieces as in Phase 1. Note that a player can
“break” a mill by moving one of his pieces out of an existing mill, then moving it back to
form the same mill a second time (or any number of times), each time removing one of his
opponent’s men.
Game goal or winning conditions. A player wins by reducing the opponent to two men
(where the opponent could no longer form mills and thus be unable to win), or by leaving the
opponent with no legal moves. Note that this game will never end in a tie.
As shown in Figure 2, on the left-hand side, Player 1 loses the game because (s)he has only two
pieces left. On the right-hand side, Player 1 also loses the game because (s)he cannot move any
one of the white pieces.
Figure 2: Winning conditions of Six Men’s Morris. A player wins by reducing the opponent to
two pieces or by leaving them without a legal move.
Mill examples. As shown in Figure 3, the left board forms a mill since three black pieces are
lined up horizontally. The right board forms no mill because there are no lines between the
lower two pieces.
Figure 3: Visualization of a mill. Mill is formed when three men of the same color are lined up
horizontally or vertically.
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2.2 Problem Specification
This section describes the requirements, program design, function decomposition, game flow, etc.
2.2.1 Game Board Representation
There are 16 possible points on a board. Therefore, we use letters a, b, c, …, p to denote these board
positions, as illustrated in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Board positions specification.
To encode the whole game board, we use an array of 16 characters. Each character in the array
is either “.” (Empty point), “#” (Player 1), or “@” (Player 2). Using this representation, the
initial board is encoded as an array of 16 “.” characters.
2.2.2 Input/Output Specification
Types of Player. Users can choose Player 1 and Player 2 to be either human- or computercontrolled. You have to use the command line to request the types of the two players before
starting the game (as shown in Figure 5).
Figure 5: Setting for the type of players.
Board. Once the players are chosen, the empty board is outputted first. Note that we always
output two views of the board at the same time. The left view represents the current board state
and the right one shows the board positions map (where the letters a, b, c, …, p denote the positions
on the board) as shown in Figure 6 because the board is not rectangular. You do not need to worry
about the board’s visualization because we have implemented the printing function in the provided
code. Do not modify the printing function, or you will lose marks.
Figure 6: Empty board.
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Every time a player does a legal movement on the board, the program will output the current
state of the board.
Movements. This program requires decisions of the following three operations from the human
or computer players.
• PUT(pos): In Phase 1 of this game, the players put pieces in turn on the board. It takes
an input of one letter as the position of the piece. If it is an illegal movement or input, the
program will output a warning message “Invalid Put-Movement.” and request for input again.
The input message’s format for players is like “Player 1 [Put] (pos): ” and it takes a input of
one letter.
• MOVE(s, t): In Phase 2 of this game, the players move the existing pieces on the board and
the input takes 2 letters: source position and target position. If it is an illegal movement
or input, the program will output a warning message “Invalid Move-Movement.” and request
for input again. The input message’s format for players is like “Player 1 [Move] (from to): ”
and it takes an input of two letters separated by a space.
• REMOVE(pos): In either phase of the game, once a player forms a mill on the board, the
player can do an extra movement, which removes an opponent’s piece. In this movement,
it takes an input of one letter position. If it is an illegal removal or input, the program will
output a warning message “Invalid Remove-Movement.” and request for input again. The
input message’s format for players is like “Player 1 [Remove] (pos): ” and it takes a input of
one letter.
A computer player always makes valid operations. The program should print out the input
message of the corresponding operations and the decision by the computer player same as the
message for human player.
Overall Interface. As shown in Figure 7, this is basically the whole interface of our game. The
board will be displayed after every movement or play and each player has to make his decision
for the requested movement. Although a computer player does not request for input, it outputs
the decision in the same format as the human player does.
After the game ends, it will output a winning message for the winner like “Congratulation to
the winner: Player 1!”.
2.3 Required Classes and Functions
To let you get familar with OO-design, we provide an OO class design framework for this game.
You should follow this OO-design and must not modify the prototypes of any of these classes and
functions. You can design extra functions if you find it necessary.
• class SixMensMorris
This class controls the overall game process, including phases 1 and 2 in Six Men’s Morris,
and the starting and ending of the game.
– board = Board()
This is a variable representing the game board.
– players = [Player(1), Player(2)]
This is an array with two variables representing the players.
– num play = 0
This is a variable representing the number of total plays (one play denotes one movement
by a player.). Each time a player does a movement, this variable is incremented by 1.
We note that 1 round is equivalent to 2 plays.
– next player(self)
This function returns the current player in this round.
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Figure 7: The interface.
– opponent(self, player)
This function returns the opponent of the player. If the argument is Player 1, then it
will return Player 2, and vice versa.
– check win(self, player)
This function returns a Boolean variable representing whether the player wins the game.
It calls board.check win() in fact.
– start game(self)
This function controls the overall logic of the game.
• class Board
This class defines the game board and its properties such as the connected edges and all
possible mills on the board, as well as a series of movements and legal movement checks on
the board. The state of the board is controlled by the players.
– state
This is the representation of the state of the game board, which stores an array of size
16.
– mills
This variable pre-defines all possible mill configurations, each of which is represented as
a 3-tuple on the board.
– edges
This variable pre-defines all possible edges, each of which is represented as a 2-tuple on
the board.
– print board(self)
This function prints the current stored board state. It would print two views – one
shows the board state and the other one shows the reference board positions for the
players. Please refer to the visualization of the board in Figure 7.
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– check put(self, pos)
This function checks whether the PUT-movement is legal. The argument is the putting
position. The output is a Boolean variable.
– check move(self, s, t, player)
This function checks whether the MOVE-movement is legal. The arguments are the
source position, the target position, and the player. The output is a Boolean variable.
– check remove(self, pos, player)
This function checks whether the REMOVE-movement is legal for the player. The
arguments are the position on which the piece is expected to be removed and the player.
The output is a Boolean variable.
– put piece(self, pos, player)
This function does the PUT-movement on the board without checking.
– move piece(self, s, t, player)
This function does the MOVE-movement on the board without checking.
– remove piece(self, pos, player)
This function does the REMOVE-movement on the board without checking.
– form mill(self, pos, player)
This function returns a Boolean variable representing whether it forms a mill at this
position for the player.
– check win(self, player, opponent)
This function returns a Boolean variable representing whether the current player wins.
If the current player wins the game, then it returns True. Otherwise, it returns False.
Please refer to the winning conditions.
• class Player
This class defines the behaviors of players. The player can put pieces, move pieces and remove
pieces on the board.
– id
Player’s id. It is an integer 0 or 1.
– symbol
Player’s symbol. Player 1 uses “#” but Player 2 uses “@”.
– board
This is the game board for the player.
– next put(self)
This function defines a PUT-movement for the player. It should be implemented by the
Human and Computer classes. It returns the position to which the piece is put
because it might trigger the formation of a mill.
– next move(self)
This function defines a MOVE-movement for the player. It should be implemented by
the Human and Computer classes. It returns the position to which the piece
moves because it might trigger the formation of a mill.
– next remove(self, opponent) This function defines a REMOVE-movement for the player.
It should be implemented by the Human and Computer classes.
• class Human
This class extends the superclass Player to play the game, where the player’s movements are
from the input of the user.
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– next put(self)
This function outputs a prompt and takes a single location input for a PUT-movement.
Specifically, the input message’s format is like “Player 1 [Put] (pos): ” and it takes an
input of one letter. It keeps checking whether it is a legal PUT-movement until the
input is legal. After getting the correct input, it then does the movement on the board
(by calling board.put piece()). It returns the position where the piece to put
because it might trigger the formation of a mill. When there is an error input,
it will output a warning message “Invalid Put-Movement.”.
– next move(self)
This function outputs a prompt and takes two location inputs (s, t) for a MOVEmovement. Specifically, the input message’s format for players is like “Player 1 [Move]
(from to): ” and it takes an input of two letters separated by a space. It keeps checking
whether it is a legal MOVE-movement until the input is legal. After getting the correct
input, it then does the movement on the board (by calling board.move piece()). It
returns the position to which the piece moves because it might trigger the
formation of a mill. When there is an error input, it will output a warning message
“Invalid Move-Movement.”.
– next remove(self, opponent)
This function outputs a prompt and takes a location input for a REMOVE-movement.
Specifically, The input message’s format for players is like “Player 1 [Remove] (pos): ”
and it takes a input of one letter. It keeps checking whether it is a legal REMOVEmovement until the input is legal. After getting the correct input, it then does REMOVEmovement on the board (by calling board.remove piece()). It returns nothing. When
there is an error input, it will output a warning message “Invalid Remove-Movement.”.
• class Computer
This class extends the superclass Player to play the game, where the player’s movement is
generated by the computer.
– next put(self)
This function randomly generates a legal PUT-movement and does the movement on the
board (by calling board.put piece()). It outputs the same message like “Player 1 [Put]
(pos): ” and one letter representing his decision. It returns the position where the
piece locates because it might trigger the formation of a mill. Note that the
computer only generates a legal movement and thus print no warning message.
– next move(self)
This function randomly generates a legal MOVE-movement (s,t) and then does the
movement on the board (by calling board.move piece()). It outputs the same message
as the human player: “Player 1 [Move] (from to): ” and two letters representing his
decision. It returns the position to which the piece moves because it might
trigger the formation of a mill. Note that the computer only generates a legal
movement and thus print no warning message.
– next remove(self, opponent)
This function randomly generates a legal REMOVE-movement and does REMOVEmovement on the board (by calling board.remove piece()). It outputs the same message
like “Player 1 [REMOVE] (pos): ” and one letter representing his decision. It returns
nothing. Note that the computer only generates a legal movement and thus print no
warning message.
2.4 Your programming task
Overall there are six source files, one for each defined class and additional tools file: Board.py,
Computer.py, Human.py, Player.py, SixMensMorris.py, utils.py. The files are templates. Your
task is to complete the missing parts of the code which are marked by “TODO”. The
programming environment is Python3 (Python3.5+) only.
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1. Complete your name and student ID in every file.
2. Based on the above problem specification, complete the game program by implementing the
above member functions.
3. The program starts by running “python3 SixMensMorris.py”. You should design enough
corner cases to test your program.
Things to note:
1. Apart from completing these member functions, Do Not change any other parts of our
provided source code.
2. Please strictly follow the Input/Output specification in Subsection 2.2.2. You might easily
get the I/O details by directly going through the provided code. Otherwise, your marks can
be deducted.
3. For better visualization, we added color in the output and you can find the color functions in
the file “utils.py”. You should not change the color or its uses in the source code. Otherwise,
it might cause errors when we are comparing the output content by machines.
4. In Python, there is a library that you can use to debug the code, i.e., ipython. You can
simply insert “from IPython import embed; embed()” and run the program. Then you can
debug your program like checking the variable values or debugging the code you write while
the code is running.
3 Task 2: Demonstrating Advantages and Disadvantages of
Dynamic Typing
These are commonly-claimed advantages and disadvantages of Dynamic Typing:
1. Advantages
• More generic code can be written. In other words, functions can be defined to apply on
arguments of different types.
• Possibilities of mixed type collection data structures.
2. Disadvantage
• Loss of type checking at compile time.
Please provide concise example codes designed by yourself or extracted from any code you write
for this assignment to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantage of Dynamic Typing mentioned
above. You are welcome to provide other advantages or disadvantages along with code fragment
for extra bonus points.
4 Task 3: Save The Tribe
This task is to build a game in Python. A Java implementation of the game is given. You need to
understand its behavior and re-implement it with Python. After finishing this task, you will have
experienced a special feature of Python called Duck Typing, which is possible only in a dynamically
typed language. And you will see a difference between the Java and Python implementations, the
former of which does not support Duck Typing.
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4.1 Duck Typing
The following synopsis of Duck Typing is summarized from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducktyping
http://www.sitepoint.com/making-ruby-quack-why-we-love-duck-typing
In standard statically-typed object-oriented languages, objects’ classes (which determine an object
characteristics and behavior) are essentially interpreted as the objects’ types. Duck Typing is a
new typing paradigm in dynamically-typed (late binding) languages that allows us to dissociate
typing from objects’ characteristics. It can be summarized by the following motto by the late poet
James Whitcombe Riley:
When I see a bird that walks like a duck and swims like a duck and quacks like a duck,
I call that bird a duck.
The basic premise of Duck Typing is simple. If an entity looks, walks, and quacks like a duck, for
all intents and purposes it is fair to assume that one is dealing with a member of the species anas
platyrhynchos. In practical Python terms, this means that it is possible to try calling any method
on any object, regardless of its class.
An important advantage of Duck Typing is that we can enjoy polymorphism without inheritance.
An immediate consequence is that we can write more generic codes, which are cleaner and more
concise.
4.2 Background
In Ancient Rome, a tribe is attacked by alien invaders. The only way to wipe out these invaders
is to seek an artifact from a desert nearby. However, the desert is very dangerous with many
monsters residing there.
With the mission to save the tribe, a soldier (the player) comes to the desert and starts his
journey to seek the artifact. Each monster in the desert lives in its own cave and the artifact is
taken by one of the monsters. The soldier has to enter the cave and kill the monster in a topological
order so that (s)he could get the keys to enter other caves. Figure 8 illustrates the pre-defined
topological order, where each node represents a cave. If the soldier wants to enter cave 2, (s)he
has to kill the monster inside cave 5 or cave 1 first to get the key for cave 2. The monster inside
cave 7 keeps the artifact that the soldier wants to collect.
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3
6
1
5
4
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Figure 8: Topological order to kill the monsters.
4.3 Task Description
At the beginning, there are 7 monsters and a spring in the desert. All of them are distributed in
different positions, as illustrated in Figure 9. The health capacity of the soldier is 100, the health
capacity of the monsters is a random number in the range of 30–70, which must be in multiples of
10. The soldier can drink the spring water to recover fully his health. Before exploring the desert,
the soldier is equipped with 2 elixirs to increase his health during fight, as well as the keys to enter
cave 5 and cave 1.
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Figure 9: Map of the desert. Symbols of M, S and @ represent the monsters, soldier and spring
respectively.
• At each iteration, the soldier can move to the next grid cell in the desert.
− When meeting a cave, the monster inside will check whether the soldier has the key to
enter or not.
* If yes, the soldier will fight with the monster in a round-based manner. In each
round, the soldier has three options:
1. Attack: The health of the monster will be damaged by 10. If the monster is still
alive, the health of the soldier will also be damaged by 10. Enter next round.
Note that the soldier always attacks first.
2. Escape: The soldier escapes and the health of monster will be recovered to its
health capacity automatically. The fight is over.
3. Use Elixir: The soldier uses elixir, which could increase her/his health by 15 to
20 randomly. Enter next round.
If the soldier successfully kills the monster (health of monster is reduced to 0 or
less), (s)he will get the dropped item(s) from the monster. Otherwise, when the
health of the soldier is reduced to 0 or less, the soldier is dead and the game is over.
* If no, the monster will tell the soldier where (s)he can collect the key to enter this
cave.
− When meeting the spring, the soldier will drink the water and recover his health to 100.
The soldier can only the water for one time.
• When the soldier gets the artifact from the monsters, the game will be over.
You should read and execute the given Java program to understand its behavior and design.
Then please replicate all the behavior of the given Java Program in Python with Duck Typing,
following the same class design. You should not introduce extra instance variables or instance
methods. You program should run by calling python3 SaveTheTribe.py. You will also be evaluated on your programming style.
5 Task 4: Strengthen Yourself
A merchant comes to the desert. The soldier could buy shield or elixir with coins to strengthen
himself, which enables him to kill the monster more easily. After killing each monster, the soldier
could get one coin.
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5.1 New Game Elements
At the beginning, there are 7 monsters (M), a merchant ($), and a spring (@) in the desert. The
merchant is located at (7,7) on the map. Note that the soldier has no coins initially.
• At each iteration, the soldier can move to the next grid cell in the desert.
− When meeting a cave, the monster inside will check whether the soldier has the key to
enter or not.
* If yes, the soldier will fight with the monster in a round-based manner. In each
round, the soldier has three options:
1. Attack: The health of the monster will be damaged by 10. If the monster is
still alive, the health of the soldier will also be damaged by 10 – his defence
value, but the damage value is no less than zero. Enter next round. Note that
the soldier always attacks first.
2. Escape: The soldier escapes and the health of monster will be recovered to its
health capacity automatically. The fight is over.
3. Use Elixir: The soldier uses elixir, which could increase her/his health by 15 to
20 randomly. Enter next round.
If the soldier successfully kills the monster (health of monster is reduced to 0 or
less), he will get the dropped item(s) and one coin from the monster. Otherwise,
when the health of the soldier is reduced to 0 or less, he is defeated and will escape
automatically.
* If no, the monster will tell the soldier where (s)he can collect the key to enter this
cave.
− When meeting the spring, the soldier will drink the water and recover his health to 100.
− When meeting the merchant, the soldier can buy a shield with two coins, or an elixir
with one coin. Each shield can improve the defence value of the soldier by 5.
• When the soldier gets the artifact from the monsters, the game will be over.
5.2 Program Enhancement
You are now required to enhance both the Java and Python implementations of Task 3, according
to the requirements below:
1. You need to add a Merchant class. A Java template is provided for your reference.
2. You need to make appropriate modifications to the Soldier and Monster classes, for which
you need to use the power of inheritance as much as possible. For example, for the modification of the Soldier class, you need to add a subclass of the Soldier class, and name it as
Task4Soldier class, instead of modifying the Soldier class directly.
3. You need to make appropriate modifications to the SaveTheTribe and Map classes in Java,
but only need to modify SaveTheTribe class in Python, due to the usage of Duck Typing.
For the changes on these two classes, you are allowed to modify the original class design of
Task 3.
4. You are required to name each class that you have modified or added for Task 4 as Task4xxx.
For example, if you modify the SaveTheTribe class, please name it as Task4SaveTheTribe,
and name the corresponding file as Task4SaveTheTribe.py or Task4SaveTheTribe.java.
5. You are required to display all the attributes of the soldier in each iteration, as illustrated in
Figure 10.
6. Your program should be run by calling python3 Task4SaveTheTribe.py and
javac Task4SaveTheTribe.java.
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Figure 10: Displayed information in each iteration.
6 Report
Your simple report should answer the following questions within TWO A4 pages.
1. Providing example code and necessary elaborations for demonstrating advantages and disadvantages of Dynamic Typing as specified in Task 2.
2. Using codes for Task 3, give two scenarios in which the Python implementation is better
than the Java implementation. Given reasons.
3. Using codes for Task 4, illustrate further advantages of Duck Typing.
7 Submission Guidelines
Please read the guidelines CAREFULLY. If you fail to meet the deadline because of submission
problem on your side, marks will still be deducted. So please start your work early!
1. In the following, SUPPOSE
your name is Chan Tai Man,
your student ID is 1155234567,
your username is tmchan, and
your email address is tmchan@cse.cuhk.edu.hk.
2. In your source files, insert the following header. REMEMBER to insert the header according
to the comment rule of Python and Java.
/∗
∗ CSCI3180 Principles of Programming Languages

∗ — Declaration —

∗ I declare that the assignment here submitted is original except for source
∗ material explicitly acknowledged. I also acknowledge that I am aware of
∗ University policy and regulations on honesty in academic work, and of the
∗ disciplinary guidelines and procedures applicable to breaches of such policy
∗ and regulations, as contained in the website
∗ http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/policy/academichonesty/

∗ Assignment 2
∗ Name : Chan Tai Man
∗ Student ID : 1155234567
∗ Email Addr : tmchan@cse.cuhk.edu.hk
∗/
The sample file header is available at
http://course.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~csci3180/resource/header.txt
3. Late submission policy: less 20% for 1 day late and less 50% for 2 days late. We shall not
accept submissions more than 2 days after the deadline.
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4. The report should be submitted to VeriGuide, which will generate a submission receipt. The
report should be named “report.pdf”. The VeriGuide receipt of report should be named
“receipt.pdf”. The report and receipt should be submitted together with codes in the same
ZIP archive.
5. Tar your source files to username.tar by
tar cvf tmchan.tar task1.zip task3 python.zip task4 java.zip \
task4 python.zip report.pdf receipt.pdf
6. Your task1.zip should include
Board.py Computer.py Human.py Player.py SixMensMorris.py utils.py
7. Your task3 python.zip should include
Pos.py Cell.py Map.py Spring.py SaveTheTribe.py Soldier.py Monster.py
8. Your task4 python.zip should include
Pos.py Cell.py Map.py Spring.py Task4SaveTheTribe.py Task4Merchant.py
Task4Soldier.py Task4Monster.py
9. Your task4 java.zip should include
Pos.java Cell.java Spring.java Task4Map.java Task4SaveTheTribe.java
Task4Merchant.java Task4Soldier.java Task4Monster.java
10. Gzip the tarred file to username.tar.gz by
gzip tmchan.tar
11. Uuencode the gzipped file and send it to the course account with the email title “HW2
studentID yourName” by
uuencode tmchan.tar.gz tmchan.tar.gz \
| mailx -s “HW2 1155234567 Chan Tai Man” csci3180@cse.cuhk.edu.hk
12. Please submit your assignment using your Unix accounts.
13. An acknowledgement email will be sent to you if your assignment is received. DO NOT
delete or modify the acknowledgement email. You should contact your TAs for help if you do
not receive the acknowledgement email within 5 minutes after your submission. DO NOT
re-submit just because you do not receive the acknowledgement email.
14. You can check your submission status at
http://course.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~csci3180/submit/hw2.html.
15. You can re-submit your assignment, but we will only grade the latest submission.
16. Enjoy your work :>
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